The books themselves were written by several ghostwriters under the collective pseudonym Franklin W. The Hardy Boys have evolved since their debut in Beginning in , the books were extensively revised, partially to eliminate racial stereotypes. The books were also written in a simpler style to compete with television.
Some critics argue that the Hardy Boys changed in the process, becoming affluent and law-respecting "agents of the adult ruling class". Similar complaints were made about the updates to Nancy Drew , the female counterpart of the series. A new Hardy Boys series, the Hardy Boys Casefiles , was created in , and featured murders, violence, and international espionage. The original "Hardy Boys Mystery Stories" series ended in A new series, Undercover Brothers , was launched the same year, featuring updated versions of the characters who narrate their adventures in the first person.
Undercover Brothers ended in and was replaced in by The Hardy Boys Adventures , also narrated in the first person. The boys have been featured in five television shows and several video games, and have helped promote merchandise such as lunchboxes and jeans. Critics have many explanations for the characters' longevity, suggesting that the Hardy Boys embody simple wish fulfillment,   American ideals of boyhood  and masculinity,  a well-respected father paradoxically argued to be inept,  and the possibility of the triumph of good over evil.
Frank is eighteen sixteen in earlier versions , and Joe is seventeen fifteen in earlier versions. The brothers attend high school in Bayport, where they are in the same grade, [b] but school is rarely mentioned in the books and never hinders their solving of mysteries. He sometimes requests their assistance, while at other times they stumble upon relevant villains and incidents.
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In each novel, the Hardy Boys are constantly involved in adventure and action. Despite frequent danger, the boys "never lose their nerve They are hardy boys, luckier and more clever than anyone around them. Murder, drug peddling, race horse kidnapping, diamond smuggling , medical malpractice , big-time auto theft, even in the s the hijacking of strategic materials and espionage , all were conducted with Bayport as a nucleus.
The Hardys also travel across the United States by motorcycle, motor boat, iceboat , train, airplane,  and their own car. The characters were conceived in by Edward Stratemeyer , founder of book-packaging firm Stratemeyer Syndicate. The first three titles were published in , and were an immediate success: by mid, more than , books had been sold. Each volume is penned by a ghostwriter under the pseudonym Franklin W. The Syndicate's process for creating the Hardy Boys books consisted of creating a detailed outline, with all elements of plot; drafting a manuscript ; and editing the manuscript.
Edward Stratemeyer's daughter, Edna Stratemeyer Squier, and possibly Stratemeyer himself, wrote outlines for the first volumes in the series. Most of the early volumes were written by Canadian Leslie McFarlane , who authored nineteen of the first twenty-five titles and co-authored volume 17 The Secret Warning , between and Many authors worked on the revised books, writing new manuscripts; some of them also wrote plot outlines and edited the books.
In , the Hardy Boys books began to be published in paperback rather than hardcover. The outcome of the case turned largely on the question of who had written the Nancy Drew series. Adams filed a countersuit, claiming that, as author of the Nancy Drew Mystery Stories , she retained the rights to her work. Although Adams had written many Nancy Drew titles after and edited others, she claimed to be the author of all of the early titles.
When Mildred Benson , the author of the early Nancy Drew volumes, was called to testify about her work for the Syndicate, Benson's role in writing the manuscripts of early titles was revealed in court with extensive documentation, contradicting Adams' claims to authorship. Furthermore, any new publishers chosen by Adams were completely within their rights to print new titles.
The Hardy Boys have gone through many permutations over the years. Beginning in , the books were extensively revised, and some commentators find that the Hardys' characters changed in the process. The early volumes, largely written by Leslie McFarlane , have been praised for their atmosphere and writing style, qualities often considered lacking in juvenile series books. I opted for Quality. The House on the Cliff , . In general, the world of these early volumes is a "[dark] and Would civilization crumble if kids got the notion that the people who ran the world were sometimes stupid, occasionally wrong and even corrupt at times?
The books' attitudes towards minority characters are a matter of disagreement. These early volumes have been called models of diversity for their day, since among the Hardys' friends are Phil Cohen, who is Jewish , and the Italian immigrant Tony Prito. Vilnoff, for example, the villain in The Sinister Sign-Post , is described as "swarthy" and "a foreigner", notes critic Steve Burgess.
We sense his untrustworthy nature immediately when he sits down beside the boys at a football game and doesn't understand it, despite the boys' best efforts to explain. When he does grasp something, you know it. Later he adds genially, "I haf you vhere I vant you now! It's foreign. Twenty-five chapters are not enough to solve the mystery of his nationality. African Americans are the targets of much racism, being depicted as unintelligent, lazy, and superstitious,  "bumpkin rescuers" at best and "secretive and conspiratorial villains" at worst.
The end result, however, was less the removal of stereotypes than the removal of non-white characters altogether  and the creation of an "ethnically cleansed Bayport. An additional rationale for the revisions was a drop in sales, which became particularly significant by the mids. The books were shortened from 25 chapters to 20 and the writing style was made terser. The Arctic Patrol Mystery , .
In the course of revising and modernizing the series, many plots were completely re-written. The Flickering Torch Mystery , for example, was changed from a plot involving an actual flickering torch used as a signal by a gang to a plot featuring a rock club called "The Flickering Torch. The books became more respectful of law and authority. Even villains no longer smoked or drank, and scenes involving guns and shoot-outs were compressed or eliminated, in favor of criminals simply giving themselves up.
They are members and agents of the adult ruling class, acting on behalf of that ruling class. Casefiles No. The Hardy Boys began to be published in paperback in The latter series, modeled on the Nancy Drew Notebooks , was aimed at a younger audience, and ran from to In contrast, the Casefiles , begun a decade earlier in , was aimed at an older audience than the Hardy Boys Mystery Stories.
Hand me the Uzi! I was told the emphasis was on high action and suspense and there had to be a cliff-hanger ending to every chapter. In these volumes, the Hardys' adventures are narrated in the first person, each brother alternating chapters. This fresh approach to telling the adventures reveals two boys quite foreign to how they have been portrayed before, egotistical and jealous, and longtime readers will find few connections with the boys' previous personalities. The boys' Aunt Gertrude becomes "Trudy", their mother Laura is given a career as a librarian, and their father is semi-retired.
In this new series, the Hardy Boys seem "more like regular kids — who have lots of wild adventures — in these books, which also deal with issues that kids today might have thought about. For example, the second book in the series, Running on Fumes , deals with environmentalists who go a little too far to try to save trees. February saw the launch of The Hardy Boys Adventures , a series written in the first-person. For the first time since , the books will be issued in hardcover, along with paperback editions. The brothers were also featured in a few standalone books, such as The Hardy Boys Ghost Stories , and some crossover titles where they teamed up with other characters such as Nancy Drew or Tom Swift.
Hardy Boys books have been extensively reprinted in the United Kingdom , with new illustrations and cover art. There have been five separate Hardy Boys television adaptations. In the mids, sales of Hardy Boys books began to drop. The Stratemeyer Syndicate conducted a survey, which revealed that the decline in sales was due to the perceived high cost of the books and to competition from television. Both actors were 20 at the time of production and portrayed the Hardy Boys as young adults rather than children. The show did poorly, however, and the series was abandoned.
Two years later, in , the American Broadcasting Company aired a Saturday morning cartoon series based on the Hardy Boys ; the series was produced by Filmation and ran from to A group of professional musicians performed all the songs on the series, and toured across the United States. During the first season, the series alternated between episodes featuring the Hardy Boys one week and Nancy Drew the next. The Hardy Boys were cast as young adults Stevenson and Cassidy were 24 and 18, respectively, during the filming of the first episodes. The series returned for a third season, dropping the Nancy Drew character completely and shortening its title to The Hardy Boys.
The characters were portrayed as in their early 20s, Frank working as a reporter and Joe still in college. The show lasted for only one season of 13 episodes due to poor ratings; a series based on Nancy Drew that ran alongside it in syndication suffered the same fate. Nancy Drew. Hardy Boys. Oh, that would be really cool to do a hard-boiled noir take on them. The series, a hardboiled noir take on the characters, finds characters Frank and Joe Hardy accused of murdering their father, Fenton Hardy, and turning to a femme fatale-esque Nancy Drew to clear their names. Del Col credits editors Matt Idelson and Matt Humphreys with helping him shape the direction of the series.
The series debuted to positive reviews. Comics blog Readingwithaflightring. It works on every level and still fully embraces the heart of who they are. Drew, who was absent for most of the first issue. She is a pitch-perfect modernized femme fatale, who could hold her own up against any present-day Sam Spade, Philip Marlowe, or the like.
The Hardy Boys have been called "a cultural touchstone all over the world. One explanation for this continuing popularity is that the Hardy Boys are simple wish fulfillment. Their adventures allow readers to vicariously experience an escape from the mundane. She tries to argue that "racist stereotypes are She further claims that this is the reason for the popularity of the Applewood Books reprints of the original, unrevised texts rather that the widely cited blandness of the rewrites. Critic Gary Westfahl considers the Hardy Boys to not display any sexuality.
They are "well-scrubbed Boy Scout types"  who "fetishized squareness. Others have pointed to the Hardy Boys' relationship with their father as a key to the success of the series. As Tim Morris notes, while Fenton Hardy is portrayed as a great detective, his sons are usually the ones that solve cases, making Fenton Hardy a paradoxical figure:. He is always there, he knows everything. He is infallible but always failing. When the boys rescue him, he is typically emaciated, dehydrated, semi-conscious, delirious; they must succor him with candy bars and water. He can take on any shape, but reveals his identity within moments of doing so.
He never discusses a case except the one he's working on in a given novel, so that his legendary close-mouthedness turns to garrulousness when a Hardy Boys novel begins, which is of course the only time we ever get to see him. All the same, he only discusses the case in enough detail to mislead his sons and put them in mortal danger. He has systems of information and data-gathering that put the FBI to shame, yet he is always losing his case notes , his ciphers , his microfilm , or some other valuable clue, usually by leaving it in his extra pair of pants, meaning that the Boys have to drive to Canada or Florida or somewhere to retrieve it.
I suppose he isn't mysterious at all; he simply embodies what many think of their own fathers: utterly powerful, contemptibly inept. Tam was also a former HKPF constable who resigned on his own accord in around Tam knew Cheng very well. He died in Markinch, Scotland on April 23, The superintendent of the works, Mr. He lives on a hill overlooking the bay, and excellent quarters have been provided on a hill opposite for the coolies employed at the works.
Minnie arrived Vancouver on August 17; and Job November 24, he had, obviously, missed the wedding. It is unknown if Job stayed behind for years, or he returned to Hong Kong after a brief stay but again went to Canada in The family's Canadian connection probably began with William Goodfellow, Mabel's father who moved from Shanghai to Vancouver and later to New Westminster by himself before William's Shanghai born son, William Douglas Bamford, went to live in Vancouver in until he joined the army in and served in the Great War in Europe.
Frederick Goode, the son of Job's second wife, Minnie, fled Shanghai and went to Victoria in , after having been charged with embezzling from his employer. He was sent back to Shanghai where he was jailed. In , as earlier mentioned, he married Margaret Goodfellow, William's daughter, in North Vancouver and they stayed there afterward. Job went to Canada in or Robert George Whitcell, the only son of Robert Charles, Job's first son, absconded from his position in Hong Kong Government after having embezzled public finds and found his way to Canada.
He was sent back to Hong Kong by the Canadian authorities. He was given a six months imprisonment sentence. Audrey, James' daughter, was sent by her mother, Mabel, to stay with her aunt Margaret in North Vancouver, after Audrey had left Hong Kong for the last time in Audrey later rejoined her mother in San Francisco and was naturalized as a U. July 7, , Bombay [Mumbai] was, through and through, an entrepreneur, and an extremely successful one.
The expansion in business afforded him to buy a launch to deliver his products to Kowloon as well as ships moored in the harbor and from time to time the launch would carry goods belong to others and even people. Before long he was running a cross-harbor ferry service between Praya Central and Tsim Sha Tsui, which became a regular service from Lanepart later had his family name changed to Lehnpart.
Job Witchell. Witchell enjoyed a wide circle of friends, all of whom will hear of his death with the deepest of regret. Tallness is the hallmark of the Witchell family. I would say James Henry was of the same height as George Bernard. John's Cathedral; some other records showed her name as Minnie Victoria Bale. Minnie b. It said, "Ex-Police Inspector Job Witchell, who was convicted of bribery and sentenced to six months' imprisonment by the Supreme Court in August last, has confessed his guilt and acknowledged the justice of the sentence passed upon him, and has further expressed regret for his remarks upon the conclusion of the trial imputing unworthy motives to the Captain Superintendent of Police, one of the principal witnesses for the prosecution.
Goode worked for the Shanghai Electric and Asbestos Ltd. He absconded and found his way to Yokohama and from there he took the passage of the steamer Shawnut headed for Victoria, B. When Shawnut ported Victoria on November 19, , Canadian Police boarded the ship and placed him under arrest. He was sent back to China the following month arriving Shanghai by the steamer Empress of China on December He was tried in Shanghai and sentenced, on February 6, , to 18 months imprisonment with hard labor.
His name reappeared in Canada again in , under more auspicious circumstances this time; he and Margaret Aitken Goodfellow got married in North Vancouver on November 16, They had two children: Doris Goode b. Goode was a Freemason. Goodfellow in Shanghai: 1. Goodfellow as owner of two strips of land cadastral lot and with a total area of 4. A company named Wm. Further investigations can determine, I hope, if these records are related to James' fahter-in-law.
It was renamed the New Fielding Hotel in , upon the addition of four floors to its original eight. In , after an extensive two-year renovation, it was re-launched as Hotel G.
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Charles Ruffier. Charles Ruffier was a notary who lived in Bac Lieu in Cochinchina. Bac Lieu is approximately km away from Saigon. There was also one Charles Auguste Ruffier, I wonder if the two were the same person, since both of them were notaries. According to the Annuaire du Syndicat des Planteurs de Caoutchouc de l'Indochine Directory of the Syndicate Rubber Farmers of Indochina for the Year , Ruffier owned and manged a rubber plantation in Bac Lieu, which was 37 hectares in size wherein five hectares were planted.
Clerk was written in the same record as his profession.
It remains a puzzle why Helene Danson had a different surname to her father. Was she adopted by the Ruffiers, or was she the daughter of Mrs. Ruffier from a previous marriage? No one seems to know. He had a successful career in the CPC, and became a very well respected hydraulics and irrigation expert, more particularly for his works in Indochina. He had been stationed in Cochinchina, Madagascar and Morocco.
Albert died on October 30, I assume she got it from the Italian Campaign, I did not have the actual proof. All Trams pass in front of Hotel. Most Moderate Rates in the Colony. Hotel Launch meets all steamers. The Lounge and Dining Room is now open to the Public. Dinner Hours 7. Witchell, Manager. This was roughly the same amount a government medical officer was paid. The Chinese were kept on the lower three stories. I wonder on which floor Dr.
Sun Yat-sen was put up. Judging simply from the names, the first two appeared to be either brothers or first cousins. Ridiculously, nobody knew exactly how many partners there were in total let along who they were, except for the three whose names were above mentioned, plus a handful of others Cheung Fuk-kwong afterward uttered from his memory, viz. The hotel compradore Cheang Tsung-shan had also contributed. There was no partnership agreement and the only written schedule of the syndicate partners and their contributions was contained in the books of the hotel, which [as you may have guessed] were destroyed in the fire.
This was just plain messy and should not be confused with what is generally referred to as the old-school Chinese way of doing business. He soon realized there was a fire when smoke and flame became visible from his second floor hotel room. Auyang mentioned in an undated interview years later that he fled his hotel rooms in such a hurry that he forgot to take handguns and additional ammunition he had been keeping in Hong Kong - without a permit.
He was asked to return to the hotel to identify personal effects about ten days after the fire, he told the authorities he did not have anything important that he needed to find. As far as he was concerned, the fire department could keep his handgun. General Chan and his wife were hospitalized in the Government Civil Hospital until August , they returned to Canton after having been released from the hospital. The claimed was filed soon after the fire; the underwriters, however, responded that an important witness [whose identity is unknown] in the case was in Shanghai and nothing would proceed until the return of that person.
Signs were quite clear that the underwriters weren't going to settle the claim according to the amount insured and so the matter dragged on. It wasn't until August 6 when the underwriters agreed to sit down with the claimants to discuss the settlement. The meeting was arranged by d'Almanda Sr.
On the second day of the meeting, the parties to the claim agreed to settle the matter through mediation. A week then passed with zero progress towards a settlement while the only agreement reached by the parties was that the mediation wasn't working. The meeting was closed on August When the parties met again on August 20, the claimants and the underwriters agreed to settle the matter through binding arbitration.
That, the syndicate was told by their solicitor, was not the amount they were going to get. The solicitor had provided an oral statement of account of which the syndicate asked for one in written form, done was provided. Such was the settlement the syndicate had accepted without further protests [f].
Came the following Monday, Yu and the check were nowhere to be found. The syndicate reported to the police and a warrant for Yu's arrest was issued. In March , creditors of the King Edward Hotel filed a bankruptcy petition against the syndicate. The case was heard at the bankruptcy court presided over by Chief Justice Henry Gollan on March 27, I found no further records of the bankruptcy case, but believe the three major partners, Cheung Fuk-kwong, Cheung Ping-kwong and Yu Shiu-shan, might have been adjudicated bankrupt, bearing in mind that, after all, the syndicate was not incorporated as a limited company..
Yu, the absconded partner, was arrested in October and was tried in the Central Magistracy on October 20, before Magistrate Wynne Jones with a charge of larceny. The case was dismissed after two weeks as the original claimants, i. He was set free. No sooner than the insurance affairs had been completed than China Land Investment had disposed of the building, or rather the damaged structure that had survived the fire.
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The buyer was, interestingly, the managing director and shareholder of China Land Investment, K. Lau, whose intention was to restore and converted it to be an office building. I've found no records that show the amount of the insurance payout as well as Lau's acquisition price, but tend to believe he paid next to nothing for the seven-stories building that needed a pricey overhaul.
Working closely with HKFB and the building authorities, the architects had made sure fire-smart measures and material were incorporated in the new building. The restoration went smoothly, I suppose, for it was all ready in the beginning of to accommodate new tenants. I know this isn't meant to be a suspense story, but Lau, the new building owner, was found dead in his office within the Chung Tin Building in the small hours of the morning on April 7, , only months after he inaugurated his building.
In , Chung Tin Building and the adjacent Hotel Cecil were demolished to make room for the construction of the the new wing of the Alexandra House. He took up advanced studies at the University of Cambridge and was called to the bar at Middle Temple. He was made a MBE in Official Receiver: You as a business man accepted this comparatively small amount without asking what had become of the balance?
Cheung Fuk-kwong: Well, the solicitor is supposed to be trustworthy. I don't know much about things, or what was meant by it. He completed his probation on March 31, and on the day next following was appointed a clerk in the same department, a position he had held, except in during which he was seconded to Water Works in the Public Works Department, until his transfer to HKPF.
He was made a 3rd class assistant accountant on June 1, but was dismissed form service on December 9 the same year. At the age of 22, Robert George went to Shanghai to be married [a] ; he was about to take a very wrong turn in life. By the time he realized he must scale back the extravagant lifestyle, and he did scale it back, he was already in the state of incapacity to service his debt, let along retiring it. On January 17, , he was finally adjudicated bankrupt; the court proceedings were reported quite extensively in the news.
In the fashion Robert George led his life, it came, perhaps, as no surprise that five years later he would bring about a ruinous state to himself. He pleaded guilty to all charges and was sentenced by Justice R. Edwards on June 18 to six months' hard labor. The case revealed that Robert George was transferred from the Colonial Secretary's Department to be officer in charge of the passport office [in contrary to what I wrote in the last paragraph based on information found in the Government Blue Book, unless HKPF was in charge of processing visas at that time] on June 1, He obtained leave on November 25, and sailed for Shanghai.
He did not return after the permitted leave expired and books he was placed in charge were checked and various discrepancies were found. Robert George wasn't going to return to Hong Kong; he was on the run. He in fact went to Canada via Shanghai, but was sent back to Hong Kong by the Canadian authorities because he had not sufficient means to support himself. Sadly, Robert George chose poorly the path of his grandfather, and faced the same punishment given to Job Witchell 42 years ago.
He went to Shanghai after serving his jail term and found a job with the Shanghai Dockyard Ltd. Robert George Witchell was killed in a motor accident in Germany on December 18, He was John's Cathedral. Andrew's Church on October 27, Her sister Evelyn Dorothy was flower girl. The Pinguets moved to Hong Kong where the old Pinguet had started a piece-goods business under the name of P.
Tragedy hit the family when Marie-Louise Pinguet died on February 25, following complications after accouchement; she was 37 years of age. The ill-fated family was not left in peace for long. Pinguet was found dead, with a gun shot wound in his chest, in the sitting room of the Lion's Head Poultry Farm in Kowloon Tong, which he owned, on October 25, Apparently he had shot himself to end his own life as was opined by the panel of an inquiry to look into his death - the panel declared there was no sign of foul play. He left several letters, what could passed as suicide notes, one to the Inspector General of Police [the position name of the head of HKPF between and ], Edward Wolfe, and five other private ones.
In the letter addressed to Wolfe he said no blame was to be attached to anyone. Maria K. I have no idea at this point of time if she was his wife, but will work on that some other time. Jolly was interned at the Stanley Camp during the Japanese occupation. He became the Director of Marine on January 15, He retired on August 8, The Jollys returned to England on February 7, The purpose of conference was to attempt to make the Commonwealth countries in the area self-supporting in respect of their war needs, and to help in increasing measure in supplying the war needs of the UK.
He was interned at the Stanley Internment Camp during the Japanese occupation, and was elected to the first administering committee of the camp on January 24, She married Cedric Arthur Mason b. Mason had been with the Shanghai Municipal Police Force since ; he rose to the position of Detective Sub-Inspector before Japanese arm forces took control of Shanghai. Muriel immigrated to New Zealand, after her divorce from Cedric. Lyster b. He was a bank officer before the war.
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Cedric, Muriel's ex-husband, married Anita Gurowich in Egypt in He was repatriated to England after the war. They all live in Australia. Newer Post Older Post Home. Photo of Job Witchell taken in a Hong Kong photo-studio, very likely in the s or s. Courtesy Margaret Ann McNutt. Maud Mary Powell Witchell. Full view of the King Edward Hotel from a ca. Credit: oldhkphoto. The boat in the center looks like a steam launch with the trademark funnel.
Could this be one of Star Ferry's boats? The low building far left with the pediments is the Central Market. June 13, , Hong Kong was listed as book-keeper of the Victoria in He was said to associate with pari-mutuel and cash sweep at the Racecourse. The partnership in the bakery business dissolved on the same day as the hotel's. Farmer, a veteran hotelier originally from Australia, had owned and managed hotels in Macau and Hong Kong.
He was hired in to be the first manager of the King Edward Hotel. He was a director of Tung Wah Hospital in and possibly in other times as well. Li went under receivership on February 26, , and was adjudicated bankrupt on July 9,
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