Evidence from academically robust and practice oriented investigations enriches the statistical information on social inclusion. Through them we get deeper insights about the situation of specific youth groups such as the homeless, migrants, ethnic minority youth, especially the Roma, and those from a public care background who are more vulnerable to social exclusion in the European context.
Research based analysis reveals the special transitional needs of these young people and the internal variations among them. It also brings to light subtle distinctions in the multiple factors that can make policy interventions more effective.
EUROPEAN PAPERS ON THE NEW WELFARE
For example, it is not only the low social capital of the disadvantaged young people that creates barriers to their social integration but more so the lack of bridging social capital in the community, the missing links between these groups and the majority population. Research also demonstrates the strong potential of integrated youth policy by showing that the weak or non-existent links between welfare assistance and educational and employment policies not only create discordance in policy interventions but also underplay the resilience and capabilities of young people's own agency.
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Creating an inclusive community was a primary goal in the process of European integration from its start and the latest economic crisis placed new weight on this objective. Social inclusion became a key priority in the Europe Strategy of the European Union, setting a common target to lift 20 million people out of risk of poverty by Both measures have significant social inclusion objectives: to make education more accessible and better suited to young people's needs, to stimulate youth educational mobility under the Erasmus Plus Programme and to encourage Member States to take measures easing the transition from school to work.
Among specific actions designed for young people's employment integration are the 'Your first EURES job' in support of labour market mobility within the EU, and measures for promoting youth entrepreneurship under the European Progress Microfinance Facility. The EU Youth Strategy was developed with the principle objectives to create more and equal opportunities for youth in education and the labour market and to promote social inclusion and solidarity of all young people.
The Strategy defines eight main fields of action, social inclusion being one of them and is set as the focus of the second three-year work cycle of the Strategy Within this field national governments are encouraged to design and implement country-specific measures, such as:. While most national policies have encompassed measures against social exclusion before the launch of the Strategy, most were inspired to design new actions responding to changing circumstances such as helping young people manage financial indebtedness in some South and West countries or learning to appreciate cultural diversity and solidarity with migrants in some North and East countries.
The Council of Europe is another long-standing actor in the field of youth social inclusion on a wider European level.here
Care Between Work and Welfare in European Societies
The social inclusion strand puts special emphasis on:. Specific mechanisms for the implementation of the youth Agenda of CoE are international reviews of national youth policies, co-management of youth policy between governments and youth organisations; work with multipliers for the development of quality youth work and its recognition; as well as its unique institutions such as the European Youth Centres and the European Youth Foundation. In conclusion, the vision for an inclusive growth out of the economic crisis in Europe has at its core a stronger youth policy with a holistic approach to the dynamic area of newly formed and persisting social vulnerabilities among youth vis-a-vis the demand for equal opportunities.
The cooperation between the EU and CoE in the face of the Youth Partnership institutionalised in allows for effective management of evidence based youth policy relying upon the mutually enriching capacities of youth researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and young people themselves. Disclaimer: A document commissioned by the EU-CoE youth partnership — it does not necessarily reflect the opinion of either of the partner institutions the European Union and the Council of Europe.
Understanding and promoting social inclusion faces various challenges: The process has many stages forming a continuum from total isolation to active inclusion. Social exclusion is a state of isolation, rapture in the social bonds between the individual and society. The other pole is the empowerment of the individual by society for active participation in social life.
Care and Social Integration in European Societies
Young people may enter the process at different points and move toward both poles — either marginalisation or achievement of autonomy and well-being. Social inclusion is multi-dimensional and affects various life domains: economic, political, cultural, social. Editors: Pfau-Effinger , B.
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This book provides insights into the theoretical framework of 'tensions' related to care for children and the elderly. It analyzes if, and under what conditions, welfare state reforms have contributed to strengthening existing tensions, creating new tensions, or relaxing such tensions. This book achieves that task with a narrative that is both empirically wide-ranging and theoretically coherent.
The Europe-wide scope of the book is particularly valuable as is its focus on the nature and impact of change and reform in policies and people's everyday lives.
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