Everything is going to plan in Belarus until five children and a handsome doctor work their way into her heart for good. Real life and legend collide when a widower and his young daughter move to the coast of the Black Sea and are drawn to the mysterious and not-entirely-normal Emona. One is a poor boy given unexpected opportunity; the other is a member of the royal court of the ousted Burmese queen. The Glass Palace is the story of how they found friendship and love in the midst of political unrest and uncertainty.
Bilodo, a lonely postman who lived alone in Montreal with only his pet fish for company, finds himself in the middle of an exchange of passionate poetry through the mail. As they get closer and closer to that promise, each experiences a varied and difficult life that reveals truths about political unrest in Central and South America in the ss.
This written translation tells the story of an intelligent and driven young woman, Zhu, who falls in love with Liang, while she is impersonating a boy to further her academic studies.
Their friendship and later love has been compared to Romeo and Juliet because of its themes and its sweeping influence on Chinese literature and culture. The entire story follows the lifelong love between Florentino and Fermina, even through many years, affairs, and one marriage apart from each other. Both Madison and Leo went to Costa Rica for solitude, but instead, they found each other. It was also a major inspiration for the Brazilian novel on this list, Dom Casmurro.
Part romance and part mystery, The Riddle of Prague follows Hana Silva through the streets of Prague as she attempts to solve an ancient riddle before anyone else also searching for the reward. The Catastrophist is a tale of failed love, but a love nonetheless. Janus and Tore are perfect for each other: they are beautiful, talented, mature, and destined for greatness. The Chronic Innocence also translated as Terminal Innocence examines whether the charm and near mythology of their union is the stuff of triumph or tragedy. The story alternates between a Dominican-American community in the United States and the Dominican Republic as Oscar struggles to navigate growing up and finding love in a complicated world split between the past and the present.
The son of a rancher-turned-missionary forms a bond with a young native woman with a mysterious past, but she is promised to another. Love, passion, and power fight for control in this saga set in deep in the Ecuadorian jungle. The Map of Love tells two love stories at once. The novel opens with the often-turbulent relationship between Anna, an American journalist, and an Egyptian-American conductor. When a young woman dies in Ethiopia in , the fallout from her death drives two lovers apart in their grief.
Now, 50 years later and after loves, marriages, and fortunes have changed, they have reunited to confront the one person who knows what really happened that day so many years ago. Is there anything as captivating as a lovely woman? Not to the men in love with her, according to Joel Williams. This collection of short stories details all the ways women capture the hearts of men…and what lengths men go to in an effort to win over the women they adore.
Can Grammarly replace a human editor? Is it worth you getting? As much a tale of revenge as it is of love, The Count of Monte Cristo is one of the most famous works of French literature of all time. The poem itself is the tale of two brave heroes on a quest to find true love. There, Bastian must realize his desire to be loved and show love to others if he ever wants to return home again. Changes: A Love Story looks at love and marriage in modern Africa with a critical and witty eye. Esi leaves an unhappy marriage only to find herself in love with a married man and facing the prospect of a polygamous marriage and all the new problems her new life and love create as she combines tradition with her modern life and goals.
Corelli and Pelagia. When Flor is murdered many years later, Roger and his childhood friend Luis travel to Guatemala to search for the truth about her death and her life. La isla bajo el mar translated to Island Beneath the Sea tells the story of a young Haitian slave and her travels with the household from Haiti to Cuba and finally to Louisiana. The book is both heartbreaking and beautiful and intersperses the tragedy with passions and love stories that span generations. The government, history, and culture of Hong Kong are noticeably separate from the rest of China.
A Many-Splendoured Thing by Han Suyin captures much of that distinct feel and culture as it relates the love story of a British expatriate and a Chinese doctor. Set against the slow-paced and alluring backdrop of Budapest, Budapest Romance is a steamy read that pays homage to a beautiful city. After a chance meeting, Jan and Kati spend six dreamy days together before returning to their separate jobs and lives.
Can their romance survive away from exotic Budapest? Many years after receiving a passionate love letter from Helga inviting him to leave his home and marriage to start fresh in the city, Bjarni is finally ready to reply. His response is measured, full of longing, and an honest look at what true love is after a life fully lived. Throughout the rest of his life, he must constantly grapple with the two worlds he inhabits, especially when he falls in love with an Indian princess betrothed to another. An Anthology of Feelings by Ika Natassa tells the stories of a love triangle set in modern Indonesia.
Keara, Ruly, and Harris and all friends, but the bonds of love run deep in their relationships as well…just not always in the ways they might expect. Because of the political and social themes running through the novel, it has been banned in Iran. This is the novel that inspired the film by the same name and follows Holly through her grief guided by a series of letters that arrive from Gerry 10 months after his death. In an effort to save herself, her brother, and her infant child, Fania agrees to marry an Israeli widower and care for him and his children.
Her life in the late 19th-century Jewish settlement is harsh, but she thrives there in spite of the challenges. My Darling You is a collection of short stories dealing with love in its various forms. This brief collection can be read in one sitting or savored over many readings and includes everything from first and last loves to a Jamaican retelling of the Sleeping Beauty fairytale.
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When a shy boy defends a girl from a drunk on a train, his life changes forever. Their life together was not always simple or easy, but their mutual love and respect bridged many cultural divides. Perry does an excellent job of narrating Grant's and Twain's parallel lives and showing how their intersection at the end of Grant's life led to the creation of an American classic. Lee: A Biography Emory M.
Synthesizing printed and manuscript sources, he presents Lee as neither the icon of Douglas Southall Freeman nor the flawed figure presented by Thomas Connolly. Lee emerges instead as a man of paradoxes, whose frustrations and tribulations were the basis for his heroism. Lee's work was his play, according to the author, and throughout his life he made the best of his lot.
Believing that evil springs from selfishness, he found release in service to his family, his country and, not least, to the men he led. One of history's great captains and most beloved generals, he refused to take himself too seriously. This comic vision of life ultimately shaped an individual who was both more and less than his legend. Highly recommended. Robert E. LEE in This set won a Pulitzer Prize in and has become one of the most respected biographies ever written. Freeman, realizing that many biographies of Lee had been written prior to his accepting the task, sought sources that had been rarely, if ever, consulted.
These sources included: the records of the Bureau of Engineers and of the United States Military Academy; collections of Southern families that included Lee's letters; correspondence and memoirs of those who served with and against him in the War Between The States; and the files of Washington and Lee University. The portrait of Lee that Freeman paints in these four volumes is that of a true leader, who was loved by his troops and respected by those who opposed him. Lee was able to exhibit some of the best qualities of humanity in some of the most inhumane situations.
In example after example, Freeman introduces us to this noble Victorian. Along with its companion set, Lee's Lieutenants also by Freeman , R. Lee provides a realistic, informative and sympathetic portrait of "Marse Robert", a man loved and respected in victory and defeat. Dickens Books.
Halleck John F. Marszalek's account of Henry Wager Halleck. Written with scholarly precision and aplomb, it recounts the life and contributions of the Union's top soldier, —, from his childhood on a New York farm Researched in depth, closely reasoned, and energetically presented, Marszalek's biography will long remain the standard account of Lincoln's commander in chief. Geer In , George Geer boarded the U.
Monitor as a fireman and engineer and stepped into history. In regular correspondence with his wife back in New York, he recorded the workings of the machinery and crew on the newfangled "cheesebox on a raft," as the Union ironclad was called. He also described the famous battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac, the posturing of commanders, and the sinking of the Monitor off the coast of North Carolina during a storm in This book collects Geer's very readable and revealing letters and augments them with an intelligent commentary on Union naval technology as well as the combined naval and military operations during the Peninsula campaign of A biography of Geer is included, while a concluding chapter surveys recent efforts to raise the Monitor from her watery grave.
Whatever the success of the latter enterprise, this book triumphs as the best inside-the-hull account of life aboard an ironclad and gives Civil War sailors a rare voice in a subject area crowded with soldiers' accounts and the preoccupation with the war on land. Donald's profile of the 16th president focuses entirely on Lincoln, seldom straying from the subject.
It looks primarily at what Lincoln "knew, when he knew it, and why he made his decisions. What really stands out in a lively narrative are Lincoln's abilities to hold together a nation of vastly diverse regional interests during the turmoil and tragedy of the Civil War. These men, all accomplished, nationally known, and presidential, originally disdained Lincoln for his backwoods upbringing and lack of experience, and were shocked and humiliated at losing to this relatively obscure Illinois lawyer.
Yet Lincoln not only convinced them to join his administration -- Seward as secretary of state, Chase as secretary of the treasury, and Bates as attorney general--he ultimately gained their admiration and respect as well. How he soothed egos, turned rivals into allies, and dealt with many challenges to his leadership, all for the sake of the greater good, is largely what Goodwin's fine book is about. Had he not possessed the wisdom and confidence to select and work with the best people, she argues, he could not have led the nation through one of its darkest periods.
Ten years in the making, this engaging work reveals why "Lincoln's road to success was longer, more tortuous, and far less likely" than the other men, and why, when opportunity beckoned, Lincoln was "the best prepared to answer the call. Lincoln may have been "the indispensable ingredient of the Civil War," but these three men were invaluable to Lincoln and they played key roles in keeping the nation intact.
He puts Lincoln's words in their cultural and intellectual contexts, establishing the contributions of New England Transcendentalism and the Greek Revival to the structure and the substance of the address. He also interprets the speech as revolutionary, since it's a speech, too for in it Lincoln bypassed as is, seems that Wills, not Lincoln, is bypassing the Constitution to justify civic equality and national union on the basis of the Declaration of Independence.
Wills's analysis of the matrix of Lincoln's text is more convincing than his present-minded critique of "original intent. This fine new work focuses on a widely known but little studied address that Lincoln delivered early in in New York City, which Holzer believes made Lincoln the Republican candidate and therefore president. While one has to credit other political and historical factors, Holzer is probably right. Surely no one will again overlook this masterful speech, even if it never rose to the eloquence of the Gettysburg Address. That's precisely one of Holzer's main arguments: that the speech was intended as a learned, historically grounded, legally powerful rebuttal to claims of Lincoln's great Democratic opponent, Stephen Douglas, about the constitutionality of slavery's spread into the territories.
But how, Holzer asks, did a long speech hold its audience at Cooper Union and then infuse tens, perhaps hundreds of thousands of newspaper readers with enthusiasm for the man? The answer lies in large part with the nature of American culture, "a highly politicized one"in the s. But as Holzer also makes clear, Lincoln conceived of the speech as part of an astute strategy to win his party's nomination.
While his political wizardry will surprise few readers, they'll learn again how it was combined with intellectual power and a fierce determination to clarify his moral convictions. It was on this visit to New York that Matthew Brady shot his most celebrated portrait of Lincoln which appears on the book jacket. Holzer devotes a fascinating chapter to this episode.
Old Abe Lincoln has been assassinated! This well-argued, often exciting account of an organized Confederate plot behind John Wilkes Booth's murder of the president both finely synthesizes traditional Lincoln assassination scholarship and proposes new proof and twists on already acknowledged possibilities. Steers, an avocational historian who has written several other books on Lincoln and the assassination, has a sharp ear for historical discordance and a novelist's eye for illuminating detail. Carefully filling in background from Booth's relationship to theater and politics to the fascinating, complicated trial of co-conspirator Mary Surratt for the non-specialized reader, Steers gracefully disentangles a clutter of characters, historical details and hypotheses to prove his own conspiracy theory.
Much of this material will be new to the common reader a Confederate plot to use yellow fever as a form of biological warfare against the North; the flight to the Vatican of Mary Surratt's son in an effort to escape prosecution after the assassination but Steers never loses his firm grip on his exciting primary narrative. Although he inclines toward purple prose in his more dramatic moments "The deed was done. The tyrant was killed. Abraham Lincoln could burn in hell.
Sic semper tyrannis! Less a book for professional historians than U. Days later he died, and the pair was charged with murder: Norris was swiftly convicted of manslaughter; Armstrong's trial was postponed for a change of venue. On his deathbed, Armstrong's father, Jack, committed his wife to secure the area's best lawyer for his son: a close friend from Jack's youth named Abraham Lincoln. Thus was Lincoln drawn into the biggest and strangest criminal trial of his career.
Already quite famous inside Illinois, Honest Abe had built his courtroom reputation largely on civil practice, notably avoiding criminal defendants he thought were guilty; this trial was likely the major exception, and Walsh's painstaking dissection of it tries to provide both a surprising look at Lincoln and a brief piece of courtroom theater. The book largely succeeds as the latter; witness by witness, argument by argument, independent historian and biographer Walsh Darkling I Listen: The Last Days and Death of John Keats shows how Lincoln won an unlikely acquittal.
One of his tactics was a masterful cross-examination. Another amounted to witness tampering, and arguably to suborning perjury. A key argument had to do with the time the moon set on the night of the beating: here Lincoln used an almanac misleadingly to discredit the prosecution's star witness. Otherwise assiduous biographers and historians, Walsh maintains, got nearly all the facts about the "almanac trial" at least slightly wrong: Lincoln didn't as was later charged doctor the almanac or use one from the wrong yearAhe didn't have to: his masterful, "glib, insinuating," tactics alone succeeded in getting his client cleared.
Walsh ably shows how and why. Unfortunately, he died in before completing his manuscript. Historian John Vacha completed the final chapters using notes, lists, and ideas that Van Tassel had gathered, and their efforts are presented in Behind Bayonets. It is perhaps the only work that uses published and unpublished sources written by northeast Ohioans to comment on the causes, course, and purpose of the war.
The authors use moving first-person commentaries and accounts to illustrate and explain these issues and situations. This regional perspective on the war is a noteworthy addition to Civil War literature, offering insight into what was going on at home while the war was being fought. As a young man, writes his namesake and grandson in his introduction, Churchill toured some of the battlefields of the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, and it is in writing of these two epochs and the expansionist years between them that Churchill is strongest.
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The survival of the group depends on the steadiness of each individual, so does their individual and collective self-respect. If any of them falters, is paralyzed by fear, runs away, or, to use a Korean war phrase, bugs out, or even to use a Civil War phrase, skedaddles or skulks, that person not only endangers his own and the others' survival, he also courts the contempt and ostracism of his comrades.
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He loses face. He loses self-respect as a man. In other words, these studies found that the compulsion of the peer group is a greater force than coercion by officers or by the state. Or as S. Marshall in Men Against Fire responds to his own rhetorical question: "No man wants to die. What induces him to risk his life bravely? When the chips are down, "the man fights to help the man next to him.
Men do not fight for a cause, but because they do not want to let their comrades down. There is a universality about this argument. It could apply to any war or to all wars. Given the prominence of this theme in the literature about World War II and about other modern wars, it was one of the first things I looked for when I began my research. And I found a lot about it, which I think enabled me to offer some corroborative insights on the question of primary group cohesion among Civil War soldiers.
Many soldiers echoed these words of enlisted men from Texas, Massachusetts, and Alabama respectively. The Texan: "We seem almost like brothers. We have suffered hardships and dangers together and are bound together by more than ordinary ties. There is a feeling of love, a strong attachment for those with whom one has shared common dangers that is never felt for anyone else or any other circumstances. As I suggested a moment ago, the fear of appearing to be a coward in the eyes of your buddies, the fear of fear itself, and fear of the shame of cowardice in the eyes of your peers was a very powerful motivator in Civil War armies.
I think it has been a strong force in other armies as well. Marshall, for example, said "personal honor is the one thing that is valued more than life itself by the majority of men. I think the greatest part of Steven Crane's novel The Red Badge of Courage, is the portrayal of how a young Civil War soldier, Henry Fleming, doubts himself and fears that at the moment of truth in combat, he would run away. Of course, he did run away. But he overcame that fear. Civil War veterans thought that Crane had portrayed this accurately and brilliantly.
After reading soldiers' letters about this same issue, I believe Crane was on target. A Connecticut private for example, wrote just before his first battle: "I am so afraid I shall prove a coward. I can hardly think of anything else. Let the consequences be as they might, I'd rather die like a brave man than have a coward's ignominy cling around my name and live. Of all names most terrible and to be dreaded is coward.
She had asked him: "aren't you scared when you go into combat?
Common-place: Back to the Battlefield
Don't you want to run away? I will say I do not wish to die, but I have too much honor, too much courage to hold back while others are going forward. One crucial factor I think that made this motivation stronger in Civil War armies than in American armies since World War I is that, as you know, Civil War units, most of them, were geographically recruited from the same community or region. Many of the men in a regimental company in these volunteer regiments had been friends and neighbors back home.
Their families knew each other. Thus, any reports of cowardice, or bugging out, or skulking on the battlefield not only would ruin a man's reputation among his comrades, but if the news reached home, it would bring disgrace to him and his family. He could never hold up his head again at home or in the army. An Ohio officer wrote to his wife about another officer from their town who had, as he put it, "proved himself a coward on the battlefield.
What a stigma for men to transmit to their posterity: 'your father was a coward. So I will stand up to the work I have commenced. This relationship between the behavior of soldiers on the battlefield and the communities from which they came is something that can be pointed out in battlefield interpretation. As I said, there is a kind of universality about this as a motivation for men not to run away in combat, but to go forward against the enemy. It would apply, I think, just about as much in other wars, not necessarily because of local recruitment and the family or the community dimension, but certainly in the primary group--the soldiers' buddies.
But for the Civil War, I found that there were some special factors, not so much in what I call combat motivation, but what I would call initial motivation or sustaining motivation. The reasons they enlisted in the first place and the reasons that these volunteer armies stuck together were in considerable part the result of ideological conviction. In much of the earlier literature on Civil War soldiers, one might get the impression that such function did not exist. There is, or at least was, a common impression that most Civil War soldiers had little or no idea why they were fighting.
In William Faulkner's novel, Sartoris, someone asked the Confederate veteran many decades after the war what the war had been about. He scratched his head and then replied: "damned if I ever did know. They didn't know what they were fighting for exactly and they fought on anyway.
That's what made them heroes. Bell Irvin Wiley, in his two classic works, Johnny Reb and Billy Yank, reflected on that theme in his discussions of soldiers' perception of the issues about which they were fighting. Wiley was writing under the influence of a lot of literature on combat motivation in World War II and in other modern wars, which argued that patriotism and ideology ranked almost last among several factors in combat motivation for World War II soldiers.
Some World War II veterans agree with this, while others vigorously disagree. I watched some of the television commemorations on the 50th anniversary of D-Day in , and was struck by one veteran who said that the closer he got to the beaches of Normandy the less patriotic he felt. A British officer in World War II said: "It would be foolish to imagine that the average British or American soldier was thinking that he was helping to save democracy.
He never gave democracy a thought. Well, I don't want either to challenge or reaffirm the truth of this argument about World War II soldiers.
What I am concerned about is its validity with respect to Civil War soldiers. I am aware, as you are, that most soldiers in World War II and other modern wars have been draftees or long service regulars, while most Civil War soldiers were volunteers from civilian life who continued to consider themselves as citizens and voters in uniform rather than as professional soldiers. Knowing this, I wondered whether the denial of a strong ideological conviction that studies of World War II soldiers seemed to provide would apply to Civil War soldiers.
But on the other hand there was Bell Irvin Wiley and others who claimed that it did. Jumping off the pages of many of these letters and diaries is a contradiction to this assertion about Civil War soldiers. I was really unprepared for the prevalence of ideological themes in many, obviously not all, of the letters and diaries I read of Civil War soldiers.
Many of those soldiers were intensely aware of the issues at stake in the war and were passionately concerned about them. Their expressions on the issues ranged from simple but heartfelt vows of patriotism, like "I am fighting for my country," to well-informed and often quite sophisticated discussions of the Constitution, states rights, nationalism, majority rule, self-government, democracy, liberty, and slavery.
To provide some background and context for understanding this, let me remind you again that these were the most literate armies in history to that time. They also came from the world's most democratic and highly politicized society. These young men had come of age in the intensely passionate and polarized politics of the s. This was a period when, in seven Illinois towns, thousands of people turned out for seven three-hour-long debates to hear Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A.
Douglas address great national issues. This is just one example of the way in which politics, journalism and the very life of the country in the s was overwhelmingly infused with the issues over which the war a few years later was fought. And these citizen soldiers continued to vote during the war, not only electing some of their officers in these volunteer regiments, but also voting in state and national elections by absentee ballot. Americans were the world's preeminent newspaper reading people in the 19th century.
As I think most of you are well aware, soldiers continued this habit during the war when they eagerly snapped up newspapers available in camp a few days after their publication from major cities such as New York and Richmond. Here are just a few examples from many I could quote to illustrate these points. A Mississippi private wrote in his diary during the winter of when he was stationed in Leesburg, Virginia: "Spend much time in reading daily papers and discussing the war question in general.
We spend much of our time in reading these journals and discussing the situation.
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Our soldiers are closer thinkers and reasoners than the people at home. It is the soldiers who have educated the people at home to a just perception of our duties in this contest. Every soldier knows he his fighting for his own liberty but even more for the liberty of the whole human race for all time to come. Several units established debating societies during less active times in winter quarters. The following winter a New York private recovering from a wound described the debating society among convalescent soldiers which discussed among other subjects the following: "Resolved that the present struggle will do more to establish and maintain a republican form of government than the Revolutionary War.
Thus, I think this suggests that one of the dominant themes in Civil War ideology was the self-conscious awareness of parallels with the generation that fought the Revolution and gave birth to the nation. Americans in both the Union and Confederacy believed themselves custodians of the legacy of the founding fathers.
The crisis of to was the great test of their worthiness of that heritage. They felt that, metaphorically, the founding fathers, a generation that was almost deified by the 19th century, were looking over their shoulders to see whether they were worthy of the heritage that those founders had left them.
Soldiers on both sides felt intensely this honorable burden on their shoulders, and, of course, the tragic irony, one of the tragic ironies of the Civil War, is that Confederate and Union soldiers interpreted that heritage in precisely opposite ways. In the image of the founders, Confederates professed to fight for liberty and independence from a tyrannical government.
Unionists fought to preserve the nation created by the founders from what they regarded as its dismemberment, destruction, and ruin. A Virginia officer filled letters to his mother with comparisons, as he put it, of the North's war of subjugation against the South to England's war against the American colonies. He was certain that the Confederacy, like the earlier Americans, would win what he called this "Second War for American Independence, because tyranny could not prosper in the nineteenth century against a people fighting for their homes and liberties.
He was fighting for liberty just as his Confederate friends had fought for liberty. An Alabama corporal referred in his diary to the Confederacy's struggle, as he put it, "for the same principles, which fired the hearts of our ancestors in the Revolutionary struggle. On the other side of the lines, a Wisconsin private considered what he called "this second war equally as holy as the first by which our fathers gained those liberties and privileges, which have made us a great and prosperous nation.
I found many examples of that. My favorite has remained the expression by an Irish-born soldier, a corporal in the 28th Massachusetts of the famous Irish Brigade. He was thirty-three years old, married, a carpenter. In letters to his wife in Massachusetts and to his father-in-law back in Ireland, both of whom had questioned his wisdom--even his sanity--for enlisting to fight for the black Republican Lincoln government, this soldier wrote in some exasperation, especially toward his father-in-law: "This is my country as much as the man who is born on the soil.
This being the case I have as much interest in the maintenance of the integrity of the nation as any other man. This is the first test of a modern free government and the act of sustaining itself against internal enemies. The soldier continued: "If we fail, then the hopes of millions fall and designs and wishes of all tyrants will succeed. The old cry will be sent forth from the aristocrats of Europe that such is the common end of all Republics.
Irishmen and their descendants have a stake in this nation. America is this Ireland's refuge, Ireland's last hope.
Destroy this Republic and Ireland's hopes are blasted. The convictions of Union soldiers, as well as Union leaders, often tended. Abstract principles of liberty and self-government were, of course, important in Confederate ideology as well. Many southern soldiers were able to tie these principles to the more visceral, concrete, and, I suppose, more understandable motive of defending their land and homes against the hated invader.
They believed the Yankees had come south to despoil and enslave them. Hatred and revenge became an increasingly dominant motif, I found in Confederate soldiers' letters as the war went on and as suffering and destruction escalated in the South. As a Louisiana lieutenant wrote to his mother from Virginia as early as "No union can ever exist between us and the barbarous loathsome and hateful Yankees. Capitol, fought in the Confederate army as a staff officer in Longstreet's corps. At the Battle of Fredericksburg, Latrobe directed artillery fire from Marye's Heights against the attacking Union soldiers.
Afterwards, he rode over the battlefield and wrote in his diary that he had, as he put it, "enjoyed the sight of hundreds of dead Yankees. Saw much of the work I had done in the way of severed limbs, decapitated bodies, and mutilated remains of all kinds, doing my soul good. Would that the whole northern army was such and I had my hand in it. Southerners related this hatred and revenge to more abstract ideological principles. If one word occurred more than others in Confederate ideological rhetoric, it was the word "liberty. Southern soldiers talked of escaping enslavement to those hated Yankees.
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