Public transit Infrastructure. Montgomery Bus Boycott, Montgomery, Ala. Parks, Rosa, Montgomery City Lines, Inc. There is always much to see and do at The Henry Ford. She was not the first African American to do this. In fact, two other black women had previously been arrested on buses in Montgomery and were considered by civil rights advocates as potential touchpoints for challenging the law.
However, both women were rejected because community leaders felt they would not gain support. Rosa Parks, with her flawless character, quiet strength, and moral fortitude, was seen as an ideal candidate. The boycott ultimately led the U. Supreme Court to outlaw racial segregation on public buses in Alabama. It also spurred more non-violent protests in other cities and catapulted a young Baptist minister named Martin Luther King, Jr.
The movement and the laws it prompted, including the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of , are one of the greatest social revolutions in modern American history. Capitol, where she is honored alongside past presidents, members of Congress, and military leaders. When the U. If we travel back in time to the December evening in when Rosa Parks boarded that city bus, we can begin to glimpse just why her courage was so extraordinary. We know from her account of the event that she made her defiant decision in an instant.
It took tremendous courage. But it took even more courage for her to stand by her decision in the minutes, days, and years that followed. To understand why, board bus No. That very bus, painstakingly restored , is now parked inside Henry Ford Museum, and open to everyone. See the overhead light shining down on the green-cushioned seat in the middle? Settle yourself here, just as Rosa Parks did. We know from many accounts that Rosa Parks recognized the bus driver—he had humiliated her and other black riders over the years. She also knew that this man, who threatened to have her arrested, carried a pistol in his holster.
She was aware of recent racial atrocities, including the mistreatment of another black woman, Claudette Colvin, for not giving up her seat, and the death earlier that summer of year-old Emmett Till from a lynching. As one of her biographers, Douglas Brinkley , observed, Rosa Parks in that moment felt fearless, bold, and serene.
Three other black riders sat in the same row, one next to Rosa Parks, the other two across the aisle. When the bus driver again demanded that all four passengers give up their seats, the three other riders reluctantly got up. All the black riders were now at the back, all the whites at the front. Rosa Parks sat between them, a brave solitary figure marking the painful boundary between races. I could be manhandled or beaten. I could be arrested. I did not think about that at all.
In fact if I had let myself think too deeply about what might happen to me, I might have gotten off the bus. What arose in Parks on that fateful evening was her belief in what Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Favoring whites and repressing blacks became an institutionalized form of inequality. And, by , with the Plessy v. Ferguson case, the U. Supreme Court ruled that states had the legal power to require segregation between blacks and whites. Before the Civil Rights Act, African Americans faced persistent racial discrimination when traveling.
It could be difficult to find restaurants, hotels, or other amenities. This edition listed travel information that would keep the traveler "from running into difficulties [and] embarrassments," and would "make his trips more enjoyable. Victor H. Green and Company. United States. Hotels Public accomodations. Travel in the segregated South was particularly humiliating for African Americans, beginning with railroads back in the 19th century, where blacks of all economic classes were generally relegated to the most uncomfortable cars just behind the locomotive—and also, should a collision or boiler explosion occur, the most dangerous.
With the arrival of affordable automobiles, it seemed southern blacks might escape the indignities of long-distance rail travel. As a result, black motorists often resorted to stashing buckets or portable toilets in their trunks. They also brought food along with them, since many diners and restaurants turned away black customers.
The laws on city transit systems separating blacks and whites were equally humiliating—and often arbitrary. By , every southern state had outlawed blacks from sitting next to whites on trolleys and streetcars, while it was left to the whims of individual conductors whether black passengers were ordered to move from this or that seat. Kaido defeated Kid during their encounter at Kid's base and threw him in a jail cell. Later, Kaido used Kid as an example when illustrating the difference in power between him and the Supernovas. He is trying to achieve that by holding him prisoner, torturing him, and trying to break his spirit.
However, Kid only holds resentment towards Kaido and swore revenge against him. Kaido became the sworn enemy of the Kozuki Family after he executed Kozuki Oden and his wife. To learn the secret that Oden knew, he hunted down Oden's son and his retainers Kin'emon , Kanjuro , and Raizo.
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Kaido explained to Momonosuke that his father Oden was a foolish lord. To fight Kaido and his crew, the Kozuki Family's retainers journeyed to Zou to seek aid from the Mink Tribe and worked to gather allies within Wano Country. In the past, they were part of Rocks Pirates. After the incident at God Valley, they went their separate ways.
As they were both Yonko, Kaido and Edward Newgate were not allies. Under normal circumstances, they did not provoke each other; however, Kaido saw the opportunity to engage his rival prior to the impending Battle of Marineford and did not hesitate to attempt to do so. When Kaido tried to stop Whitebeard from going to Marineford , Shanks interfered with him in order to allow the other Yonko to rescue Ace.
Kaido seems to recognize Shutenmaru's strength as Kaido wants him to become his subordinate. Jack claims that this is the only reason why Shutenmaru is still alive. However, Ashura refuses to join Kaido's crew and tries to avoid him as possible. The two have fought in the past but Kaido is willing to forgive him if Ashura joins his crew and even had a big smile on his face when he thought about it, though that might have been because Kaido was drunk at the moment.
As one of the Yonko , Kaido is one of the strongest pirates alive,  renowned as the "Strongest Creature in the World". Luffy defeating him. Additionally, Trafalgar Law stated Kaido to be able to easily kill Donquixote Doflamingo , a world-famous and extremely powerful pirate in his own right. He then later went on to defeat Luffy himself with no effort, rendering him unconscious with a single hit. Similar to the other Yonko, Kaido has many underlings and other pirates allied with him  and is able to claim self-governing islands as his own territories.
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Kaido also has a very strong will, since he was completely unaffected by Luffy's Haoshoku Haki. He is capable of swinging his kanabo hard enough to send a normal-sized person flying into the distance in one blow,  and also broke past the tremendous defensive power of Luffy's Gear Fourth with great ease.
He once sunk nine enormous prison ships singlehandedly  Kaido also clashed equally with Big Mom, with the power of that clash causing the sky itself to split in two. Kaido possesses immense durability, even without using Busoshoku Haki. He took multiple powerful hits from Monkey D. Luffy 's Gear Third while in his dragon form and transformed back into his human form after being pummeled into the ground, and proceeded to receive a barrage of Gear Fourth hits that were even more powerful, yet he felt nothing more than annoyance, received no injuries, and was able to quickly get back up and counterattack without issue.
He has been caught and tortured 18 times, and people as powerful as the Marines and other Yonko have attempted to execute him 40 times only to fail as Kaido survived every single attempt because every single execution weapon broke when being used on him. Most notably, Kaido has jumped from 10, meters from the sky onto the ground, creating a massive shockwave strong enough to sink a large ship nearby, and emerged only with a headache; it has even become a hobby for him to attempt suicide, only for it to fail.
Despite his massive size, Kaido possesses immense speed as shown when he moves past Luffy in an instant while attacking him. Using it in conjunction with his immense physical strength, he can use it to smash adversaries over vast distances,  and was able to knock Luffy unconscious with a single blow, breaking past the tremendous defensive power of Luffy's Busoshoku Haki -enhanced Gear Fourth form. Not much is known about his earlier life, but sometime when he became a pirate, he had been defeated seven times and was captured eighteen times by the Marines and the other Yonko, causing him to live as a criminal.
During those captures, Kaido was repeatedly tortured and given the death sentence forty times. However, no execution device was effective on him, and Kaido managed to sink nine massive prison ships. Kaido also managed to gain possession of a Road Poneglyph , one of the four poneglyphs that could reveal the location of Raftel when deciphered. Roger was executed. Kaido was wounded by Oden's sword, Enma , giving him his only scar. At some point after taking over Wano Country, he also battled against the thief Shutenmaru.
When Whitebeard attempted to save Ace from his execution at Marineford , Kaido tried to attack him. However, Shanks intercepted Kaido before he could reach Whitebeard. Kaido went up to Ballon Terminal , where he encountered Urouge , who learned of his intention to attempt suicide and allowed him to proceed. Kaido jumped off the sky island and landed 10, meters below on the Kid Pirates ' base. However, he only received a minor headache and found himself face-to-face with the Kid, On Air , and Hawkins alliance. After cursing Whitebeard for having been able to die, Kaido yelled that Doflamingo needed to make preparations for battle before promising to start a massive war due to the world boring him.
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After Jack 's defeat, Apoo contacted Kaido in his fortress, revealing that they had lost all contact with Jack's fleet after they went to attack Zou for a second time. After learning that Jack's attempt to rescue Doflamingo failed, Kaido was enraged at not being able to acquire any more SMILEs, which meant he could not gain any more Gifters.
As he drowned his sorrows in alcohol, Kaido's despair turned to rage when his subordinates mentioned Monkey D. Luffy and Trafalgar Law , causing him to smash one out of the building with his mace. Kaido angrily stated that the two Supernovas were nowhere near him in power, pointing to the defeated Eustass Kid as an example. As the news of Luffy's exploits at Totto Land spread across the world, Kaido read the newspaper and angrily wondered why Luffy was in Big Mom's territory. He rejected her request since he wished to take care of Luffy himself, but Big Mom was unbending as she reminded him of a debt.
After getting drunk,  Kaido flew to Kuri in Wano Country. On the way, he found Speed and Tama and attacked them after hearing a report of the former's treachery. Kaido was drunk and in a partial stupor, which was a sight that unnerved even the likes of Jack, a subordinate known for his own violent streaks, fearing what Kaido would do in this state.
Basil Hawkins then came and told Kaido that Luffy and Law were hiding in the ruins of Oden Castle, and Kaido immediately flew toward it and shot a heat breath at it, instantly destroying it. However, he was then hit in the head by a giant punch from Luffy. After Kaido was sent crashing into the ground, Luffy got his attention by yelling at him. Kaido attacked with a fire breath, but Luffy dodged and used Elephant Gatling. Luffy's attacks were ineffective, as Kaido then struck Luffy with "Raimei Hakke", rendering him unconscious with just one hit. Kaido stood over Luffy, scoffing at the idea his opponent aspired to be Pirate King after bringing him down with such ease.
Though Luffy was unconscious, Kaido noticed that Luffy was still glaring at him. He then ordered his men to imprison Luffy, deciding to break his spirit and turn him into a subordinate. While walking away, Kaido learned that Luffy possessed Haoshoku Haki when the latter instinctively knocked out some of his men. Kaido found that attribute worth some credit, but was equally quick to order Luffy locked up. Deciding to take care of Law later, Kaido departed to go drink again, annoyed that he had sobered up.
When he heard that Big Mom and her crew were attempting to enter Wano, Kaido ordered his subordinates to stop them. He then heard that King knocked Big Mom's ship off the waterfall. After Big Mom was brought to Onigashima, Kaido ordered his subordinates to release her from her cuffs. The two Yonko then clashed weapons, causing the skies above Onigashima to split in two. Both Kaido and Big Mom later stopped their clash and came to an agreement. Kaido then announced to his subordinates that both Big Mom and himself were forming a pirate alliance to take over the world, shocking many who heard the unexpected news.
However, in Japanese, its meaning is somewhat closer to something along the lines of "all kinds of beasts. Sign In Don't have an account? Is that a trick question? I support each of those Portland treasures equally, although I do hope the Trailblazers prevail in signing LeBron James in the offseason longshot , and the Timbers acquire the promising Tayo Edun possible in theirs.
That would make for an exciting next year. This is the fourth year of our annual fundraiser and it was our most successful one yet! Pictures from the event will be posted soon, but here's a glimpse of the pictures from the program and a video about CCC's work that we featured at the event. This is an important leadership development opportunity, particularly for those who live, work, and or have spent a significant part of their life in Washington County.
Childcare and food will be provided during the workshop. Please contact Shweta Moorthy by June 19 if you wish to participate in this leadership development opportunity. Currently in development, the Regional Equity Atlas 3. We will not collect, analyze, and present data for its own sake — instead, the Regional Equity Atlas is designed to be a tool to catalyze lasting social change, and to support grassroots community organizing toward that end. The Coalition will resource and train a cohort of community members living in Washington County to design and implement small-scale research projects and co-develop the Regional Equity Atlas.
The cohort will begin meeting in July Please contact Shweta Moorthy by June 19 if you wish to participate in this leadership development and community-based research opportunity. This year, we are exploring a new approach aimed at deepening relationships with local elected leaders and creating a broader vision for racial equity in our community. All five county commissioners heard from service providers, advocates, and community members about priority issues and the importance of culturally specific resources, with a number of CCC members testifying in person.
In the run-up to the May 15 election, we worked to increase engagement on racial equity in local races. Allan Lazo of the Fair Housing Council of Oregon was an outstanding moderator as candidates discussed their visions for Metro's work in racial equity, housing, transportation, and land use. District attorneys are one of the most powerful actors in the criminal justice system, and this forum was an opportunity to center racial justice in these conversations. Shujat Qalbani of Unite Oregon drew on his own experience as a criminal justice policy advocate, prosecutor, and municipal judge to serve as moderator.
The Coalition of Communities of Color, Verde, OPAL Environmental Justice Oregon and partners successfully advanced equity commitments to protect low-income ratepayers, support workforce diversity and target businesses, and incent community-based development of renewable energy infrastructure. While Oregon has been recognized as an environmental leader, communities like ours-- communities of color and low-income communities-- are often left out of the development, implementation, and enforcement of such initiatives and bypassed by the environmental, social and economic wealth created through the environmental and sustainability movement.
We are on a path to reverse that on the local and state level. In July, organizations and communities of color will build a collective understanding of energy development fundamentals and energy democracy, including how the fossil-fuel economy is an integrated climate and economic crisis which has disproportionately impacted low-income communities and communities of color. We are simultaneously working to establish long-term intervenor funding for Environmental Justice groups. We believe this is an enormous opportunity to develop our communities as stakeholders in energy policy and shift the utility business model to center the needs of communities of color and low-income communities.
How will we build this new, regenerative, and cooperative future? The Portland Clean Energy Fund is Portland's chance to become a national model for transitioning our city to renewable energy in a manner that directly supports racial justice and equity. From funding new rooftop solar and energy efficiency projects to a robust job-training program for underserved communities, PCEF is how we can turn our values into tangible benefits for Portlanders and our climate.
The initiative would levy a small surcharge on huge multinational corporations to capitalize a fund that will be directed to clean energy and climate investments that benefits low-income people and people of color among other traditionally underserved communities. The Tour leverages the recently published book, Energy Democracy: Advancing Equity in Clean Energy Solutions , to strengthen, bring together, and expand the various strands and networks of the emerging energy democracy movement in the United States.
Who We Are. Board of Directors. Research Justice. Leadership Development. Take Action. November 5, Bridges, Leaders Bridge. October Leaders Bridge eNewsletter. June 4, Bridges, Leaders Bridge. June Leaders Bridge eNewsletter. Alumni Spotlights. Shilo George. Connie Kim Yen Nguyen-Truong. Monday, Nov.
Honoring Mulugeta Seraw: Remember. Tuesday, November 13, Committee Placement Opportunities. Career Opportunities. Verde is Hiring Crew Managers! Assistant Guest Services Manager — Oregon Conventions Center As an Assistant Guest Services Manager, your responsibilities are all about enhancing the guest experience at our venue while continually leading and developing an engaged staff.
Environmental Health Education and Equity Specialist Public Health Educator 2 The Public Health Division of the Oregon Health Authority is recruiting for an Environmental Health Education and Equity Specialist to develop and implement culturally-responsive health education materials and interventions for the Environmental Public Health section to reduce environmental exposures in Oregon communities. Leadership Opportunities. Welcome to the October edition of the Equity Lens!
Meet Our New Board Members. Tony DeFalco. Chi Nyugen. Tony Hopson. Advocacy Update. CCC Ballot Measure Positions Yes on Measure : This measure would allow local governments to partner with nongovernmental entities to build affordable housing with local bond dollars. Research Justice Update. What is PUAH? Why is this important? Examples of incidents include: A person is verbally harassed for being presumed to be from another country.
A wall is defaced with anti-Semitic messaging. What will happen with this information? Download Voter Guide. What is the Research Justice Fellowship? Frequently Asked Questions Does the fellowship pay? Are there geographical, age, education, or experience requirements? The fellowship is open to everyone 18 years or older who identifies as a person of color.
There are no education, experience and immigration requirements. Research Justice Fellows need to live or work or have a strong relationship to Washington County. This is a 2 month program from Oct-Nov and it requires a 60 hour time commitment, which includes: Participating in trainings on Oct , Implementing the research Participating in the development of the online data tool In the trainings, community researchers will develop a timeline of research implementation including scheduling check-ins with CCC for guidance, assistance and accountability in implementation of research in October and November.
How do I apply and ask other questions? By then Harding was primarily remembered — if at all — for the Teapot Dome bribery scandal and was widely regarded as one of the worst Presidents in American history. Over chicken and biscuits at the banquet, Harding made a few remarks about his friends in the Senate and the men and women who work in government. To read the entire speech, visit Archive. We humans are far more complex than the news headlines and clickbait would have you believe. Let the Narratively newsletter be your guide.
Love this Narratively story? Sign up for our Newsletter. Send us a story tip. Become a Patron. Follow us. How a brilliant scientist went from discovering a mother lode of treasure at the bottom of the sea to fleeing from authorities with suitcases full of cash. Thompson had long insisted that he suffers from neurological problems and chronic fatigue syndrome, which impairs his memory, and that his meandering explanations were a symptom of the distress foisted upon him.
Thompson was genuinely sickened and overwhelmed, however, and he found it extremely frustrating that nobody seemed to take his condition seriously. In the 30 years since, the weight of the find had upended partnerships, ended his marriage, and set loose the specter of greed. What began as a valiant mission of science turned into something else entirely. O n September 11, , about 7, feet beneath the surface of the Atlantic Ocean, a set of glowing orbs moved smoothly through the darkness and illuminated the mysterious world below.
That far down there are few currents, the water is close to freezing, and it is almost pitch black. The only light typically comes from the bioluminescent creatures that float by like ghosts, but in this case the lights were from a six-ton, unmanned vessel. The Nemo , looking like an industrial freezer with two robotic arms, made a small adjustment to its thrusters and hovered above the scattered remains of a sunken ship.
Video of the wreckage was relayed to a vessel bobbing above, giving the crew — and the world — the first look at a ship whose location had stymied treasure hunters for generations. It was the SS Central America , a massive side-wheel steamship that sank in a hurricane off the coast of South Carolina in The find was remarkable for many reasons.
The artifacts eventually recovered from the ship were a window into a bygone era and gave voice to the hundreds of people who were pulled into the abyss. But the discovery was also a spectacular victory for pocketbooks — the ship was carrying gold when it sank, and lots of it: coins, bars and nuggets of every size surrounded the wreck and covered its decks and rotting masts. And that was only what the crew could see — somewhere in the remains were said to be between 3 and 21 tons of gold, a haul some experts valued at close to half a billion dollars.
For Thompson, the Edisonian genius who masterminded the expedition, the discovery was the first salvo of what looked to be a long, impressive career. He became an American hero, a mix of brains and daring in the tradition of the scientist-adventurers of yore. But Thompson was subjected to a legal hell storm as soon as he set foot on shore. Numerous people and companies were vying for their share of the gold, and the unending litigation was compounded by the lawsuits filed by investors who claimed Thompson had ripped them off. In , long after the litigation had sidetracked his calling, Thompson went underground, allegedly taking with him suitcases full of cash and gold.
Months later, Thompson was staying under an assumed name at a hotel in Boca Raton, Florida, trying to keep his faculties in check. He was unkempt, unwell and barely left his hotel room, as he had been on the run from federal authorities for the past two and a half years. From the witness stand in Columbus, Thompson disclosed startling information in a story already laden with tragedy and fortunes lost — and shed light on the mystery of millions in still-missing gold. The pressure 8, feet below the sea is times greater than on the surface, and Tommy Thompson was squeezed by something even more intense for the better part of 30 years.
He grew up in Defiance, Ohio, a small city in the northwestern corner of the state. He was always drawn to the water, and he enjoyed challenging friends to breath-holding contests. When he was a teenager, he bought and fixed up an amphibious car, and he loved pranking his friends by driving unsuspecting passengers into a lake.
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Rife with lore, the hunters spoke of ships sunken somewhere out in the ocean with more gold than could ever be spent. However, nobody knew quite where to start looking, nor could they afford the technology necessary to undertake the search. Following his graduation from The Ohio State University with a degree in ocean engineering, Thompson went to work for the Battelle Memorial Institute, a prominent research lab in Columbus that has developed everything from kitchen appliances to nuclear weapons.
There, he was able to work on deep-sea engineering projects, at one point developing technology that allowed the U. Thompson wanted to work exclusively in deep water but was routinely warned that such jobs were hard to come by. So he began looking for other ways to pursue this heady scientific passion. It was actually the means to an end. One of the first orders of business was to find the perfect wreck to hunt. Thompson worked with Bob Evans, an equivalently intelligent polymath and professional geologist, to winnow down the list of candidate ships.
The Central America ferried passengers to and from California at the height of the Gold Rush in the mid 19th century. Six hundred people, and up to 21 tons of gold coming from California, were aboard the Central America when it disembarked to New York from a stopover in Cuba on September 3, Five days later, the ship found herself floundering in the middle of a terrifying hurricane.
Passengers attempted a hour nonstop bucket brigade to keep the ship afloat, but the engines flooded and the storm ripped apart masts and sails. The ship was doomed. The vessel let out a final tortured groan as it sank on the evening of September 12, sucking souls down in a horrifying vortex. The loss in gold was so profound that it was one of the factors precipitating the Great Panic financial crisis of Finding the Central America would be no easy matter — proportionally it would be like finding a single grain of sand in the floor plan of a four-bedroom house.
The key, Thompson knew, was to undertake a logical and hyper-organized search. Bob Evans used every known detail about the fateful voyage, including passenger and crew accounts of the weather as the ship sank, and worked with a search theory expert to determine that the wreck was likely somewhere in a 1,square-mile grid miles southeast of Charleston, South Carolina, in part of the ocean that was nearly a mile and a half deep.
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