East Asia and Globalization (Asia in World Politics)


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Data were gathered from Asia respondents , Europe respondents , Australia respondents , Africa respondents , North America respondents , South America respondents , and the Middle East respondents. We used a non-restricted non probability sampling convenience sampling method to collect information regarding the Asian media. Emails were used for respondents from Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Iran, China, Japan, and Singapore, and telephone and personal visits were used within Pakistan. We took care to avoid non response items and to keep costs minimal.

These Asian countries were considered because of their common geography. The questions were set according to ethical research standards, and no objectionable or personal questions were asked from the respondents.

SOUTH-EAST ASIA -- World Geography Mapping

A set of questionnaires were sent to the research ethics committee of Iqra University for review and discussion, and a majority of members of the committee agreed to a modified questionnaire. We designed closed-ended questions that used the Likert scale a numerical range from strongly agree 5 to strongly disagree 1 to gauge the responses of the respondents Salant and Dillman , p. The reliability coefficient was 0. We validated the data using cross variable validation and found no violations in the collected data.

We are interested in beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors in the Asian media and the interrelated variables discussed in the previous section. It is always difficult to comprehend subjective responses and opinions and determine the adequacy and coherency of the answers, so we designed a sequence of connected questions Salant and Dillman , p. The sample size was 10,, which included the pilot testing of the questionnaire and did not include incomplete responses. We randomly chose countries from every continent based on peer contacts, family and friends. Iqra University the parent organization of Iqra University Research Center helped our team achieve the desired results, providing sufficient financial and technical support.

When the survey was completed, we coded and processed the data. We used the median score to check the ranks of the production features used in Asian media. The Pakistani media is expanding culture in the region, facilitating multilateral dialogues, looking after the interest of Pakistani minorities, and fostering good relationships with neighboring nations note the significant beta coefficients and their respective t-statistics, which are all greater than 1.

However, they are not contributing to raising income in its region the beta coefficient and t-statistics are not significant, i. The data revealed that the Indian media contribute significantly and positively to expanding culture, facilitating multilateral dialogues, and income generation significant beta coefficients and their respective t-statistics, i. However, they do not look after the interest of minorities or ease aggression with neighboring nations insignificant beta coefficient and t-statistics, i.

The Afghani media do not significantly contribute to any of the areas of our investigation all beta coefficients and their respective t-statistics are insignificant, i. The Chinese and Japanese media contribute significantly and positively to all of the outlined areas, i. The packaging factor is being practiced the most in Asia Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Iran, China, Japan, and Singapore as this has the greatest median scores in all regions.

We conclude that the media in Asia as a whole significantly contribute to cultural expansion and the exchange of multilateral dialogues. However, they do not look after the interests of minorities, although there have been minor improvements in relation to religious minorities. It should be noted that the media are virtual ambassadors who should always attempt to mitigate hostilities between nations, but it can been seen from our results that they can often provoke aggressions between territories.

Asia has become an emerging economic source of power and this economic advancement will determine military modernization and any form of war intervention. The findings of this paper unfortunately highlight that the media has failed to look after the rights and interests of minorities. This was confirmed during the massacre at Burma this year , which was not reported by any of the Asian media outlets.

It is also disheartening that the findings of this paper show that in this region the media provokes hostilities instead of mitigating the chance of wars. In contrast to these issues, the media has promoted cultural expansions and multilateral dialogues among the nations of the region. Media trends are nurturing two-way communication for information exchange. This also creates job opportunities in desirable locations Landry We also noted that communication is difficult in rural areas, making it difficult to influence and help some communities.

Recent developments have targeted these areas, particularly because of floods and natural disasters. The media reported on flood and earthquake victims in Pakistan and Japan to encourage the rest of the world to send aid. Many more similar incidents are being reported on to influence governments and policy makers. In Asian countries that are developing, poor, more autocratic, or less educated governments own the media because they use public choice theory to handle political and economic freedom.

China, Japan, Korea, India, Sri Lanka and many other countries control information communication technology ICT by enforcing policies and deploying certain projects Shiming Asian nations have initiated collaborations with media to foster an extremely strong media industry in the near future. These include the following. Overall protection and backing of media artists via institutions, both monetary and non-monetary.

The Asian media should continue developing this industry by incorporating true value using the following outline. Asian governments are trying to maintain stability and revenue returns in media. It is now evident that the Asian media expanded very quickly. Politics has a major role in the media.

Commercialization of media has made it more powerful, public, and profitable. In this race, it is very important to concretely define what is right and what is wrong, and decide whether media content has a positive outcome. Media is the only platform and channel to unite people from different castes, creeds, and races during tragedies and during celebrations. The policy makers, stakeholders, and new entrants into this domain should recognize the basic purpose of the media, which is to explore, visualize, and share information that may improve the world.

Competing interests. AO carried out the media studies, formulated the methodology of this research by consultation with MIS, which include the synthesis of propositions and hypotheses, finalizing the constructs of the propositions, sampling and data collection. Furthermore, the study design, implementation and major contribution to writing were taken up by AO and MIS.

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Asian ascendancy: media in the age of globalization

MIS formulated the methodology of the study, which includes the synthesis of propositions and hypotheses, finalizing the constructs of the propositions, sampling and data collection while choosing the econometrical methodology to evaluate the propositions and the data gathered for the study. SAH made it possible to attain the survey form approval by the research ethics committee of Iqra University.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Amber Osman, Email: moc. Muhammad Imtiaz Subhani, Email: ku. Syed Akif Hasan, Email: moc. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Dec 2. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Mar 11; Accepted Nov This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

Abstract This paper aims to investigate the media industry in Asia, with reference to international standards of media tools, instruments, content, and coverage. Background Media is the most prominent and strong mode of expression in this age of globalization, and Asia has discovered the power of media to maneuver and manipulate ongoing agendas Rudolph ; Hoselitz Infrastructure and platform The infrastructure and platforms used by the media have been developed because they move information from one station to another.

Trade Trade in media relates to its content production. Methods Research questions To investigate Asian media in this age of globalization, we developed the following research questions. Do the media expand Asian culture?


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Do the media facilitate the exchange of multilateral dialogues in Asia? Do the media look after the interests of minorities in Asia? Do the media ease the risk of warfare between Asian nations? Do the media generate income in Asia? Description of data and sampling This paper is investigating a very broad subject area. Table 1 Categorical regressions. However, they are not looking after the interests of minorities or non-dominating communities. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Categorical Regressions by Region.

Towards a more integrated Asia

IRAN Beta 0. Table 3 Median scores for practicing factors in Asian media. Conclusions We conclude that the media in Asia as a whole significantly contribute to cultural expansion and the exchange of multilateral dialogues. Maintaining cultural resources and encouraging creativity. Enforcing laws and copyrights. Restoring and retaining cultural legacy. Stimulating digital industry growth and understanding.


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  • Expanding into domestic and foreign markets. Encouraging tourism. Imparting of education, training, and skills. Offering investment options and tax exemptions. Freedom of speech and expression. Guiding principles and rules. Capacity enlargement. High standards of professionalism and moral principles.

    Footnotes Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interest. Contributor Information Amber Osman, Email: moc. References Ainslie G. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Globalisation, media and culture. Econ Pol Wkly. In: Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Economy. Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. Mike F, editor. London: Sage Publications; Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research.

    East Asian Economies and Financial Globalization In the Post-Crisis World

    Mahwah, N. Elbaum Associates; Cambridge, UK: Polity; Culture, Social Norms and Economic Behaviour. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar; A spatial theory of news consumption and electoral competition the review of economic studies. Weakness of Will: a Philosophical Introduction.

    East Asia and Globalization (Asia in World Politics)

    Oxford: Blackwell; Making Waves. New York: Rockefeller Foundation; Who owns the media. J Law Econ. Belgium: European Communities, Brussels; Global Intelligence Files.

    The seven great debates in the media literacy movement. J Commun. Urbanization and economic growth in Asia. Econ Dev Cult Chang. Habits, self-control and social conventions: the role of global media and corporations. J Bus Ethics. London: Earth scan Publications Ltd; The Media and the Development.

    Working Paper no. Washington D. Drone war against Pakistan: an analytical study. J Pol Stud. Measurement and Analysis of Online Social Networks. Media and Youth. In: In the line of fire. Memoir A, editor. Pakistan: Free Press; Asian Media Barometer. And with improvements in technology and expanded trade, there was optimism about job prospects. In ethnically diverse societies such as Malaysia, globalization contributed significantly to the reduction of racial tensions rather than exacerbate them, contrary to what is happening in the West.

    There is no question that the West has also benefited from globalization. The United Kingdom and the United States have seen huge gains in the services sector, especially in financial services. However, the accompanying income inequality is of a different hue than in Asia. Younger, better educated workers located in cosmopolitan urban centers such as New York and London have seen a phenomenal increase in their income.

    On the other hand, older, less educated workers in the rusting industrial belts of northern England and America have lost their jobs to manufacturers overseas. The recent voting patterns in the U.

    Globalisation in the Asia-Pacific Context

    How did Asia achieve a shared prosperity from globalization with consistent domestic political support while the rich countries have struggled and are suffering the political blowback? The answer may lie in the heavy investment made by Asian governments in human capital education and health to prepare the workforce to take advantage of the high wage manufacturing jobs created by globalized investment.

    This was complemented by public investment in infrastructure to continue to attract foreign investment. The fiscal deficits associated with large public investment in human capital and physical infrastructure were tolerated because the political and economic benefits of preparing the workforce for new jobs were considered worthwhile objectives. Both the U. In the U. K, it happened under the watch of the incumbent conservative government. While presenting to Parliament the result of the recent referendum to the European Union, Prime Minister David Cameron spoke proudly of leaving behind a sound economy resting on the pillar of a sharp fiscal retrenchment—low taxes and even lower public expenditure.

    Badly needed public investment in health and education to prepare workers and an overdue upgrade of infrastructure to attract investment have been thwarted by a Congress wedded to fiscal austerity. This has prolonged the pain of transition to new jobs. The long and painful transition to productive jobs has resulted in the clamor for reneging on globalization commitments.

    This is misplaced because protecting jobs that are best done elsewhere is not possible without putting curbs on investment. That would be moving towards a world that globalizes misery. There is thus no alternative to a proactive government that eases the transition to new jobs in rich countries. Of course, Asia had the advantage of preparing its work force for known job streams. Rich countries, on the other hand, have to discover new productive jobs.

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