Instability and Humanitarian Conditions in Chad


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Connecting History

He said the political situation in the region was delicate, and was made more complicated by the existing state of relations between Chad, Central African Republic and the Sudan.


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But their relations should not serve as a pretext for inaction. Region-wide peace required political dialogue and normalized relations, between those countries. Measures must be taken to build a climate of trust and ensure that States refrained from providing support to armed rebels from within their territories, against neighbouring countries. He suggested the establishment of a monitoring mechanism to oversee progress in implementing the May Doha agreement and the March Dakar agreement.

The tense security environment within which MINURCAT worked, due in large part to the activities of armed groups, impeded relations between Chad and the Central African Republic, which accused one another of supporting rebels. The human rights situation was worrisome, and he pointed to the need to listen more closely to complaints of aggression directed at humanitarian workers, and of violations against women and children.

The violation of rights of children in the two countries were of concern, and through its work in the working group on children and armed conflict, Mexico would seek to advance appeals to armed groups and the two Governments to develop plans of actions to prevent the use of children in armed conflict, with Council resolution as its basis.

Peace in Chad was linked to peace in Darfur. The recent Chadian aerial bombing of Darfur was worrying. Stressing the importance of easing tensions between Chad and the Sudan, he reiterated a call for a meeting of the Dakkar contact group.

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While welcoming the development of the strategic workplan and benchmarks for the Mission, he said that one area not tackled in the report related to the recruitment from internally displaced persons and refugee camps. He wanted to know about the scale of the problem. He also welcomed full deployment of DIS and its increased effectiveness. Going forward, it was important to ensure that DIS did not provide those escorts at the detriment of its work in the camps. If successful, national elections offered a fresh chance at national reconciliation and achievement of political stability.

He urged the Chadian Government to build on those gains and to aim for an inclusive political process, especially in the east. Inclusive political dialogue was key to overcoming internal weaknesses, for instance, on issues of human rights, involving the rights of refugees and internally displaced persons. He expressed regret that relations between Chad and the Sudan had deteriorated. While welcoming the success of the Doha agreement, it had broken down after an attack by an armed opposition group that was based inside western Darfur, whose stated aim had been to overthrow the Chadian Government.

Those attacks had then precipitated a response by the Chadian Army, including air strikes. He called upon both Governments to end their support for rebel groups and to restore order and stability. The numerous camps set up for those persons placed pressure on the local population and set the stage for banditry. However, DIS was a community policing force and could not be pitted against large-scale incursions.

However, much more should be done to consolidate the progress. He commended the Government of the Central African Republic for the measures to foster dialogue, including the establishment of a broad-based Government in January Nevertheless, he was concerned about the negative impact of the armed rebellion in the north-east of the country, and called on the Government and armed groups to embrace a political process through peaceful means.

He also commended mediation efforts by Libya and stressed the importance of good relations between the Sudan and Chad. Stability in the region would require resolution of conflicts in the respective countries. Uganda welcomed the development of the strategic workplan, with benchmarks. He called on the Mission to focus on strengthening national capacities as a core part of its exit strategy. The situation in the north-east was disquieting, since hostilities between Chadian forces and rebel bodies, among them tribal groups, had caused massive displacement.

Their ongoing conflicts had hampered humanitarian and economic activities, including trade and livestock farming. Tribal conflicts had prompted the Government to intervene, in recognition of its responsibility to protect the population from harm and restore rule of law. Talks had taken place with rebel groups that had once refused to engage in reconciliation, and those talks would continue as long as they advanced the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process, helped meet humanitarian needs and promoted economic and social development.

He explained that the north-eastern region formed a triangle of land with parts in the Sudan and Chad. That area was of strategic importance because of the trade and livestock farming that took place there. But it had become too dangerous for commercial activities because armed groups ran rampant and because of the situation in Darfur. Those groups had multiplied as a result of the crisis. His Government was committed to working with the United Nations. Talks with rebels had been fruitful and had led to compromise.

He briefly acknowledged the role played by the Government of France in that regard.

Refworld | Instability and Humanitarian Conditions in Chad

Measures should be taken in the north-east to bring stability, such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes. He appealed to others to pay serious attention to the situation in that area of the country, keeping in mind the larger subregional context.

The LRA left damaged crops in its wake; it killed people, exploited women, and used children as soldiers. The international community, in particular the Security Council, should help it to meet its urgent staffing and logistics needs. He thanked the institutions and countries that had contributed financial and human resources to the Mission and expressed gratitude to the contributors to the trust fund for financing DIS.

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As noted by most speakers, Chad was demonstrating its ongoing determination to resolve its domestic problems, he continued. Recent developments had included the consensus on the legislative framework for the elections and the setting up of the National Electoral Commission, with a view to holding elections in It did acknowledge carrying out air strikes against the forces that had arrived from the Sudan and were assembled along the Chadian side of the border; the international community could not reproach his country for exercising its legitimate right to self-defence.

However, his country remained fully prepared to normalize its relations with the Sudan in the interests of the two brotherly peoples, and he took note of the concerns expressed by the speakers in that regard. Chad reiterated its full cooperation with the United Nations in carrying out its noble mission of peace in his country. In response, Mr. One was of the capital city of Vakagga, which had been largely destroyed in the June attacks.

Until the end of May, it had been an important commercial centre, but it had been reduced to a ghost town. The displaced population was not confident enough to return. In another photograph, contingents of the Chadian national police were shown in their blue uniforms, including women, standing outside a DIS station in eastern Chad.

One photograph showed the outside of a prison in the east. The final photograph showed a large group of men gathered under a tree to discuss issues of concern, which Mr. Angelo said was an example of how different ethnic groups engaged in conflict resolution. Upon receiving complaints from foreign troops over living conditions, he had often taken pains to show that living conditions for Mission staff were no better. He pledged to continue efforts to improve the working and living conditions of DIS officers, and not just staff.

Community dialogue and conflict resolution was thus an important condition for the return of displaced persons, and the Mission was trying to foster a conducive environment. Turning to the Dakar process and the suggestion to monitor progress, he said conditions were present for a border monitoring mechanism to work. But to begin that process, a meeting of all members of the Dakar group would be required. But both Chad and the Sudan must engage in confidence building before the meeting took place, if the plan was to bear fruit.

Countries with influence should do their part to create trust. On discipline in the DIS, he said the Mission and the Government of Chad had expelled all those engaged in misbehaviour. The DIS was an innovative approach to security, combining international and national security mechanisms. Addressing the issue of delays in deployment, he urged all troop-contributing countries that had pledged their support to the Mission to make those contributions as soon as possible. He also asked them to envisage an extension of their presence.

Angelo gave the Council his word that, if fully deployed, the Mission would be sure to make a difference in eastern Chad. But it would need certain military enablers, which he would be happy to discuss with the Council. Turning to north-eastern Central African Republic, he admitted that the situation there had deteriorated since May. He saw a proliferation of ethnically based militias, and more weapons. The Mission was trying to ensure that the resources at its disposal were being used to their maximum effect.

He was not seeking additional resources, but trying to make full use of the resources already at hand. The Mission was trying to improve security conditions so that the political process, the mediation that had originated in Bangui, could carry over to that region. It was also providing logistical support to the Government at Bangui, considering its limited means. Finally, on the question by the representative of the United Kingdom on benchmarks, he said he would return to the Council later, with ideas on how to obtain concrete figures of recruitment activity happening in camps.

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Country Overview

The meeting was called to order at a. For information media. Not an official record. Insecurity and attacks against civilians and humanitarian agencies are increasing. Violence in Darfur, Chad and CAR has resulted in an estimated 63, Chadians displaced, in addition to about , Sudanese refugees and more than 45, Central African refugees in Chad.

The incursion of Chadian and Sudanese rebel groups into CAR is expected to further destabilize the region and lead to more displacement of civilians. Displacement in northern CAR, however, is more difficult to trace. An estimated , internally displaced reportedly live in 'bushes and forests' to avoid attack, some since The activities of the armed groups and the insecurity in northern CAR further accelerates the collapse of the socio-economic infrastructure which has already been hit hard by instability and consecutive coups in the past , , , an attempted one in , and To date, the impacts are felt in the break-down of the state's ability to provide basic services health care, drinking water, education, roads , to pay civil servants' salaries, and to control violence and restore law outside the capital Bangui.

In Chad, humanitarian agencies are stretched to provide protection and assistance to the internally displaced and the Sudanese and Central African refugees. Indeed, Refugees International visited camps for Central African and Darfurian refugees in March and reported on the poor conditions in the camps and need for additional funding to humanitarian agencies. It would therefore be quite difficult for Chad to handle new refugee flows due to fighting in CAR and Darfur. In addition, agencies face increased insecurity and violence against humanitarian workers, logistical constraints, poor road networks that make access to affected populations difficult, lack of implementing partners with adequate capacity, and insufficient resources.

In CAR, an estimated , people are internally displaced, yet only a few international agencies are present to provide aid and protection. Insecurity, poor infrastructure, lack of confidence in state structures and mismanagement of funds by various government institutions are given as reasons for the lack of response.

Chad's Fight Against Boko Haram

The government has little control over its most of its territory and is calling on international support to oust rebels currently occupying a city in Vakaga province which borders Chad and Sudan. The international community should aim to assist the state in providing the majority of humanitarian responses as it may not have the ability or resources to do it itself. This has resulted in high numbers of displaced people in the Lake Chad basin, affecting around 17 million people from Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, and Niger.

The majority of the IDPs and refugees fleeing from the conflict can be found within the Lac region in the west of the country.

Latest Developments

As of August , the crisis has displaced a total of , people comprising of refugees, Chadian returnees and IDPs. Families are torn apart and uprooted from their homes and livelihoods, leaving everything behind as they escape.


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  8. They move to camps or to impoverished host communities in the Lac region and around , people required shelter and NFIs. They do not have the resources to afford construction materials especially since these materials are already in low supply due to their location in the desert. This funding was directed toward only two of the proposed projects as displayed in the table above , neither of which were targeting the shelter needs for those suffering the Boko Haram crisis in the Lac region.

    A further problem can be identified when analyzing the projects that were to be funded in

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    Instability and Humanitarian Conditions in Chad Instability and Humanitarian Conditions in Chad
    Instability and Humanitarian Conditions in Chad Instability and Humanitarian Conditions in Chad
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