The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army. Dauphin of France Dauphin of France Dauphin of Viennois , was the title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from to and to The word dauphin is French for dolphin.
At first the heirs were granted the County of Viennois to rule, but only the title was granted. For example, he married Charlotte of Savoy against his father's wishes. The title was automatically conferred upon the next heir apparent to the throne in the direct line upon birth, accession of the parent to the throne or death of the previous Dauphin, unlike the British title Prince of Wales, which has always been in the gift of the monarch; the sons of the King of France hold the style and rank of fils de France, while male-line grandsons hold the style and rank of petits-enfants de France.
The sons and grandsons of the Dauphin ranked higher than their cousins, being treated as the king's children and grandchildren respectively; the sons of the Dauphin, though grandsons of the king, are ranked as Sons of France, the grandsons of the Dauphin ranked as Grandsons of France. The title was abolished by the Constitution of Under the constitution the heir-apparent to the throne was restyled Prince Royal , taking effect from the inception of the Legislative Assembly on 1 October With the removal of the Bourbons the title fell into disuse, the heirs of Louis-Philippe being titled Prince Royal.
In Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Huck encounters two odd characters who turn out to be professional con men. One of them claims that he should be treated with deference, since he is "really" an impoverished English duke, the other, not to be outdone, reveals that he is "really" the Dauphin.
Is a character in Shakespeare's Henry V. Alphonse Daudet wrote a short story called "The Death of the Dauphin", about a young Dauphin who wants to stop Death from approaching him. As the titular character is female, the episode title gets the gender incorrect. Schlesinger was born in Hampstead , into a middle class Jewish family, the son of Winifred Henrietta and Bernard Edward Schlesinger, a physician. Schlesinger's acting career began in the s and consisted of supporting roles in British films such as The Divided Heart and Oh He began his directorial career in with the short documentary Sunday in the Park about London's Hyde Park.
In , Schlesinger was credited as exterior or second unit director on 23 episodes of the TV series The Four Just Men and four minute episodes of the series Danger Man. By the s, he had given up acting to concentrate on a directing career, another of his earlier directorial efforts, the British Transport Films ' documentary Terminus, gained a Venice Film Festival Gold Lion and a British Academy Award , his first two fiction films, A Kind of Loving and Billy Liar were set in the North of England.
A Kind of Loving won the Golden Bear award at the 12th Berlin International Film Festival in , his third feature film, tartly described the modern, urban way of life in London and was one of the first films about'swinging London'. Schlesinger's next film was the period drama Far from the Madding Crowd , an adaptation of Thomas Hardy's popular novel accentuated by beautiful English country locations. Both films featured Julie Christie as the female lead.
Schlesinger's next film, Midnight Cowboy, was internationally acclaimed. During the s, he made an array of films that were about loners and people outside the clean world, such as Sunday Bloody Sunday , The Day of the Locust , Marathon Man and Yanks. Came the major box office and critical failure of Honky Tonk Freeway , followed by films that attracted mixed responses from the public, few dollars, althoughThe Falcon and the Snowman made money and Pacific Heights was a box-office hit. In Britain, he did better with films like Cold Comfort Farm. Schlesinger directed a party political broadcast for the Conservative Party in the general election of , which featured Prime Minister John Major returning to Brixton in south London, where he had spent his teenage years, which highlighted his humble background, atypical for a Conservative politician.
Schlesinger admitted to having voted for all three main political parties in the UK at one time or another. Schlesinger was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the Birthday Honours for services to film. Schlesinger underwent a quadruple heart bypass in , before suffering a stroke in December , he was taken off life support at Desert Regional Medical Center in Palm Springs on 24 July , he died early the following day at the age of He was survived by his partner of photographer Michael Childers.
A memorial service was held on 30 September Methodism Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley.
George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire , the United States , beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture.
Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ , the Son of God , died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people. However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position.
Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage.
Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy , but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century.
The Wesley brothers founded the " Holy Club " at the University of Oxford , where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College ; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs.
John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour. In , at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony , General James Oglethorpe , both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church.
At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May , John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history. John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius.
Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia , joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield , a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services.
Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
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The term was first used by the British press and is the German word for'lightning'; the Germans conducted mass air attacks against industrial targets and cities, beginning with raids on London towards the end of the Battle of Britain in , a battle for daylight air superiority between the Luftwaffe and the Royal Air Force over the United Kingdom. From 7 September , London was systematically bombed by the Luftwaffe for 56 out of the following 57 days and nights. Most notable was a large daylight attack against London on 15 September; the Luftwaffe decreased daylight operations in favour of night attacks to evade attack by the RAF, the Blitz became a night bombing campaign after October The Luftwaffe attacked the main Atlantic sea port of Liverpool in the Liverpool Blitz and the North Sea port of Hull, a convenient and found target or secondary target for bombers unable to locate their primary targets, suffered the Hull Blitz.
Bristol , Portsmouth , Plymouth and Swansea were bombed, as were the industrial cities of Birmingham , Coventry , Glasgow and Sheffield. More than 40, civilians were killed by Luftwaffe bombing during the war half of them in the capital, where more than a million houses were destroyed or damaged. Bombing failed to do much damage to the war economy; the greatest effect was to force the British to disperse the production of aircraft and spare parts.
British wartime studies concluded that cities took 10 to 15 days to recover when hit but exceptions like Birmingham took three months; the German air offensive failed because the Luftwaffe High Command did not develop a methodical strategy for destroying British war industry. Poor intelligence about British industry and economic efficiency led to OKL concentrating on tactics rather than strategy.
The bombing effort was diluted by attacks against several sets of industries instead of constant pressure on the most vital. In the s and s, airpower theorists such as Giulio Douhet and Billy Mitchell claimed that air forces could win wars, obviating the need for land and sea fighting, it was thought that bombers would always get through and could not be resisted at night. Industry, seats of government and communications could be destroyed, depriving an opponent of the means to make war.
Bombing civilians would cause a collapse of morale and a loss of production in the remaining factories. Democracies, where public opinion was allowed, were thought vulnerable; the RAF and the United States Army Air Corps adopted much of this apocalyptic thinking. The policy of RAF Bomber Command became an attempt to achieve victory through the destruction of civilian will and industry. The Luftwaffe took a cautious view of strategic bombing and OKL did not oppose the strategic bombardment of industries or cities.
It believed it could affect the balance of power on the battlefield by disrupting production and damaging civilian morale. OKL did not believe air power alone could be decisive and the Luftwaffe did not have a policy of systematic "terror bombing"; the vital industries and transport centres that would be targeted for shutdown were valid military targets. It could be claimed civilians were not to be targeted directly, but the breakdown of production would affect their morale and will to fight.
German legal scholars of the s worked out guidelines for what type of bombing was permissible under international law. While direct attacks against civilians were ruled out as "terror bombing", the concept of attacking vital war industries—and probable heavy civilian casualties and breakdown of civilian morale—was ruled as acceptable.
From the beginning of the National Socialist regime until , there was a debate in German military journals over the role of strategic bombardment, with some contributors arguing along the lines of the British and Americans. General Walter Wever championed strategic bombing and the building of suitable aircraft, although he emphasised the importance of aviation in operational and tactical terms.kuficmasubs.tk
Kenneth Williams Unseen: The private notes, scripts and photographs
Wever outlined five points of air strategy: To destroy the enemy air force by bombing its bases and aircraft factories and defeat enemy air forces attacking German targets. To prevent the movement of large enemy ground forces to the decisive areas, by destroying railways and roads bridges and tunnels, which are indispensable for the movement and supply of forces To support the operations of the army formations, independent of railways, i.
To support naval operations by attacking naval bases, protecting German naval bases and participating directly in naval battles To paralyse the enemy armed forces by stopping production in armaments factories. Wever argued that OKL should not be educated in tactical and operational matters but in gra. Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London , famed as a fashionable residential area and as the home of numerous prestigious cultural and educational institutions.
Pancras to the north, Clerkenwell to the east. Bloomsbury is an intellectual and literary hub for London , as home of world-known Bloomsbury Publishing , publishers of the Harry Potter series, namesake of the Bloomsbury Set , a group of famous British intellectuals, including author Virginia Woolf and economist John Maynard Keynes , among others. Bloomsbury began to be developed in the 's under the Earls of Southampton , but it was in the 19th century, under the Duke of Bedford , which the district was planned and built as an affluent Regency era residential area by famed developer James Burton.
The district is known for its numerous garden squares, including Bloomsbury Square , Russell Square , Tavistock Square , among others. The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is in the Domesday Book , which states that the area had vineyards and "wood for pigs", but it is not until that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land. The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi -- the manor, of Blemond. An publication and New London : Volume 4, mentions the idea that the area was named after a village called "Lomesbury" which stood where Bloomsbury Square is now, though this etymology is now discredited.
At the end of the 14th century, Edward III acquired Blemond's manor, passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse , who kept the area rural. In the early s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what became Bloomsbury Square. The Yorkshire Grey public house on the corner of Gray's Inn Road and Theobald's Road dates from ; the area was laid out in the 18th century by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford , who built Bloomsbury Market, which opened in The major development of the squares that we see today started in about when Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford removed Bedford House and developed the land to the north with Russell Square as its centrepiece.
Bloomsbury is associated with the arts and medicine; the area gives its name to the Bloomsbury Group of artists, the most famous of whom was Virginia Woolf, who met in private homes in the area in the early s, to the lesser known Bloomsbury Gang of Whigs formed in by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford.
Eliot was editor the offices were in Tavistock Square. The Bloomsbury Festival was launched in when local resident Roma Backhouse was commissioned to mark the re-opening of the Brunswick Centre , a residential and shopping area; the free festival is a celebration of the local area, partnering with galleries and museums, achieved charitable status at the end of Different kinds of tutoring institutions like Bloomsbury International for English Language, Bloomsbury Law Tutors for law education, Skygate Tutors and Topmark Tutors Centre contributing to grow the private tutoring sector in Bloomsbury.
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The British Museum , which first opened to the public in in Montagu House , is at the heart of Bloomsbury. At the centre of the museum the space around the former British Library Reading Room, filled with the concrete storage bunkers of the British Library, is today the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court , an indoor square with a glass roof designed by British architect Norman Foster , it houses a cinema, a shop, a cafe and a restaurant.
Since , the British Library has been located in a purpose-built building just outside the northern edge of Bloomsbury, in Euston Road. In Bloomsbury is the Foundling Museum , close to Brunswick Square , which tells the story of the Foundling Hospital opened by Thomas Coram for unwanted children in Georgian London ; the hospital, now demolished except for the Georgian colonnade , is today a playground and outdoor sports field for children, called Coram's Fields.
It is home to a small number of sheep. The nearby Lamb's Conduit Street i. Premiering in , three years after her canonization by the Roman Catholic Church , the play dramatises what is known of her life based on the substantial records of her trial. Shaw studied the transcripts and decided that the concerned people acted in good faith according to their beliefs, he wrote in his preface to the play: There are no villains in the piece.
Crime, like disease, is not interesting: it is something to be done away with by general consent, and, all about it, it is what men do at their best, with good intentions, what normal men and women find that they must and will do in spite of their intentions, that concern us. Michael Holroyd has characterised the play as "a tragedy without villains" and as Shaw's "only tragedy". John Fielden has discussed further the appropriateness of characterising Saint Joan as a tragedy; the text of the published play includes a long Preface by Shaw. Kendimde Kendimin Seyri. Kendle's Fire.
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Kenekshuns 3: Kenekshuns, 3. Kenekshuns II: Kenekshuns, 2. Kenekshuns: Kenekshuns, 1. We moved your item s to Saved for Later. There was a problem with saving your item s for later. You can go to cart and save for later there. Kenneth Williams Unseen: The private notes, scripts and photographs - eBook. Average rating: 0 out of 5 stars, based on 0 reviews Write a review.
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